The global eggshell membrane market size was valued at USD 132 million in 2021. It is expected to rise to USD 301 million, with a CAGR of 9.6% during the forecast period (2022–2030). Eggshell Membrane is the interior membrane of an eggshell. It is composed primarily of protein and has two-layered reticulated structures. The façade is rough, whereas the interior is densely constructed. Eggshell membrane is generated commercially from industrially processed eggshells. There are numerous methods for separating the membrane from the shell, including chemical, mechanical, steam, and vacuum techniques.
The membrane of an eggshell is composed mainly of fibrous proteins such as collagen. In addition, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfated, and sulfated glycoproteins containing hexosamines such as glucosamine and eggshell membranes also contain glycosaminoglycans. Multiple scientific studies have demonstrated the egg membrane's efficacy as a dietary supplement ingredient in diverse areas, including bones, tendons, joint health, skin, hair, and nails.
The global eggshell membrane market is anticipated to expand significantly because of the positive outlook on sustainability and waste reduction. Several manufacturers in the food business that use egg whites and yolk are expected to begin using eggshell waste to produce eggshell membranes, fertilizers, and other goods to generate a profit due to the rising concern for protecting the environment.
Finished eggshell membrane is purchased from food industries that employ eggs as one of their processing materials. Eggshells are among the most commonly used byproducts of the food industry and processing plants. Eggs are a crucial element in numerous items, such as fast food, salad dressings, and cakes, resulting in the daily production of several tonnes of eggshell trash. Some food companies dispose of the byproduct or sell eggshells as raw material to eggshell membrane manufacturers for further processing and utilization.
In recent years, there has been a worldwide emphasis on sustainability, particularly the valorization and recycling of leftovers from food manufacturing. For example, the European Union has implemented the 'Zero Waste' campaign, which promotes waste prevention through several processes, such as reducing residual garbage and the source-separation of waste.
Reducing food waste has been identified as a crucial demand-side strategy to combat climate change. Reducing food waste necessitates the decrease of greenhouse gas emissions per unit of food consumed by increasing resource efficiency. The food business produces large quantities of eggshells as a byproduct, and their production is consistent with the Zero Waste policy. The European Union classifies eggshells as hazardous waste, encouraging egg-using businesses to value the byproduct through vertical integration.
Eggshells are primarily discarded in landfills, have few outlets, and are grossly underutilized. There are indications that eggshells have several unknown applications as functional food ingredients due to their advantages and high nutritional value. In addition to their potential use as a nutritional supplement in animal and human diets, eggshell membranes can also be used as a raw material for face masks and skin treatments.
On account of rising consumer awareness, the market for dietary supplements is anticipated to experience rapid expansion. Protein-based supplements have emerged as one of the most dominant segments of ingredients. Dietary supplements are one of the application areas of eggshell membranes due to their numerous health benefits and GRAS classification, which has made it easier for manufacturers of nutritional supplements to incorporate these ingredients into their products.
In addition, the rising demand for clinical nutrition products due to an increased focus on the prevention of malnutrition is anticipated to drive nutraceutical manufacturers to utilize novel food ingredients such as eggshell membranes over the forecast period. Eggshell membranes contain naturally occurring proteins and glycosaminoglycans that support the health of connective tissues and joints.
The technological advancement in eggshell membranes necessitates substantial expenditures on research and development. Costs associated with research and development may include clinical trials or product research conducted to make advertising claims. These studies adhere to the food and healthcare regulations of the respective nation. While developing a product, eggshell membrane manufacturers must comply with food and healthcare regulations to obtain reasonable ROIs.
To gain a competitive advantage, eggshell membrane manufacturers invest in R&D for the discovery and creation of innovative applications, regulatory requirements, intellectual property purposes, and differentiation of products. Eggshell membrane manufacturers rely heavily on patents and patent protection as a revenue strategy; they invest in patenting compounds and processes that they believe will generate revenue.
Even so, eggshell membrane manufacturers are aware that the company's future profits are contingent on current research and development expenditures. Numerous companies have therefore made substantial investments in eggshell membrane research. Still, they are now confronted with a diminishing return on their R&D expenditures due to constraints such as a distorted product lifecycle, regulatory uncertainty, and high product diversity.
Due to the rising demand for natural, vegetarian ingredients in food and cosmetic applications, the eggshell membrane market is anticipated to experience substantial growth in the upcoming future. The most prominent application segment, personal care and cosmetics, is primarily driven by the rapid research and development in the cosmetic industry. Numerous eggshell membrane producers, including Eggnovo SL and Microcore, are vertically integrated and develop eggshell membrane supplements for nutraceutical and cosmetic applications.
Expanding the Over-The-Counter (OTC) drugs market as part of the expanding pharmaceutical industry has created growth opportunities for eggshell membrane manufacturers. Membrane derived from eggshells has been approved for use and sold as a pain reliever for connective tissues and joints. Several governing bodies have subsidized or mandated sustainable business models for manufacturers. As part of its sustainable initiatives, the European Union has issued numerous directives and compliances, such as the zero-waste initiative and circular economy strategy, which have increasingly urged the use of byproducts such as eggshells.
Further, in the wake of the zero-waste initiative, food companies consider selling eggshells to manufacturers, whereas the circular economy strategy encourages the use of byproducts in another value chain. Due to its nutrient-rich properties, the market for the eggshell membrane is anticipated to expand over the forecast period as health consciousness and the demand for food supplements with clean labels continue to rise.
The growth of the eggshell membrane market was severely hindered during the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the widespread coronavirus, every nation’s global gross domestic product (GDP) decreased. To prevent the disease from spreading, the government-imposed regulations that retarded the economy, halted production, slowed the development of projects, and required market participants to cease their operations. Governments imposed social distance norms that restricted the mobility and productivity of the labor force.
Further, due to the imposed lockdown, the major end-use industries, including pharmaceutical, food and beverage, and cosmetics, had to cease production and operations. Workers could not travel for work, no operations were permitted, and supply chains were severely disrupted. Hence, during the initial stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, a decline in the eggshell membrane market was witnessed.
With the gradual resumption of financial operations, the eggshell membrane market picked up speed and revived demand. As the government and various economic sectors accelerated their productions to make up for losses, demand for eggshell membranes increased, and the market grew.
Based on type, the global eggshell membrane market share is segmented into Hydrolyzed and Unhydrolyzed eggshell membranes.
The hydrolyzed eggshell membrane is expected to dominate the market with the largest share of USD 272 million at a CAGR of 9.8% by 2030. The hydrolyzed eggshell membrane includes various bioactive compounds that favorably affect the appearance and physiology of hair, skin, and nails. More significant amounts of hyaluronan are present in the membranes of the eggshell. Hyaluronan is analogous to the synovial fluid that surrounds joints—the fluid acts as a joint shock absorber and lubricant. As a treatment for arthritis and osteoarthritis-related knee pain, hyaluronan is employed. Eggshell membrane, eggshell membrane extracts, and other products are highly effective for treating joint-related conditions.
In addition to GAGs, eggshell membranes that have been hydrolyzed contain several amino acids. There is evidence that oral supplementation with hydrolyzed eggshell membranes has physiological effects on the GAGs or glycosaminoglycans found in the hair over the scalp and hair shaft within the follicle. This effect has made eggshell membrane a desirable ingredient in personal care and hair cosmetics. As nutrients diminish with age, hydrolyzed eggshell membranes can be used to positively influence nutrient levels. As awareness and, consequently, demand for the product increases, the positive effects of eggshell membrane hydrolysates on hair, skin, and joints are anticipated to contribute to the segment's growth during the forecast period.
Based on application, the global eggshell membrane market is segmented into Pharmaceutical, Nutraceutical, Personal Care and Cosmetics, Food and Beverages, and others.
The food and beverages industry is expected to command a share of USD 69 million with a CAGR of 9% during the forecast period. Eggshell membrane is commonly used in functional foods and beverages because it is readily accessible and rich in calcium sources to the food industry. In addition, the demand for clean label ingredients accelerated the food and beverage industry's adoption of eggshell membranes.
In the coming years, the increasing incidence of various diseases attributable to a sedentary lifestyle, particularly in the 30-to-40-year-old age group, and shifting dietary patterns are anticipated to increase market awareness of the significance of eggshell membrane products. The functional foods segment represents a significant portion of the food and beverage market in terms of revenue. The demand for protein-fortified eggshell membrane food and beverage products is being driven by the growing understanding of the relationship between exercise and maintaining a balanced and nutrient-rich diet and raising awareness of the importance of leading a healthy and active lifestyle.
The market for the eggshell membrane is segmented into the following regions- North America, Central and South America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and the Middle East and Africa.
Asia-Pacific is expected to be the largest market for eggshell membranes, accounting for USD 135 million at a CAGR of 10% by 2030. The growing population in Asia-Pacific, an increase in disposable income, and advancements in the retail sector are anticipated to boost the market's growth for various consumer products in the region. The increasing applicability of eggshell membranes in end-use industries such as food, pharmaceutical, and dietary supplements creates growth opportunities for eggshell membrane companies in the area.
Asia-Pacific's aging population is also rising, creating a need for bone health, joint health, hair greying, and skin aging remedies. According to the World Bank Group, the proportion of China's population aged 65 and older was 6% in 1999, 8% in 2009, and 11.47 % in 2019. Eggshell membrane consists primarily of collagen fibrous proteins, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid, all essential for joint health; consequently, it offers potential relief for joint and connective tissue pain.
North America is expected to be the second-largest for eggshell membrane, accounting for USD 68 million at a CAGR of 9.5% by 2030. Due to the dietary habits, high disposable income, and access to a variety of processed and ready-to-eat foods, the region has a large population with high levels of obesity. Changes in lifestyle, such as the consumption of packaged foods, sedentary work habits, and altered sleep cycles, have led to lifestyle-related diseases, such as atherosclerosis, rapid bone degeneration, and heart disease. This is expected to increase the demand for preventive care products, such as medications and dietary supplements.