The global transplantation market size was estimated at USD 12,925.7 million in 2021. It is expected to reach a value of USD 29,734.1 million, generating a CAGR of 9.55% during the analysis period (2022–2030). The global increase in the demand for organs for transplant can be attributed to a rise in the incidence of acute diseases, increasing the number of organ failures. For instance, diabetes and high blood pressure are the most common causes of end-stage renal disease, where kidney transplants or dialysis are the only treatment options to keep a patient alive. The growing demand for novel tissue transplantation products and organ transplantation for the treatment of organ failure is a significant factor contributing to the growth of the global transplantation market.
Some of the causes of organ failure are severe trauma, sepsis, loss of blood, poisoning, drug abuse, leukemia, and other acute illnesses. Severe organ failure is associated with critical illnesses related to the degradation of organ functioning. Obesity, alcohol and drug abuse, and smoking may lead to such conditions, ultimately resulting in organ failure. Accordingly, the global demand for tissue and organ transplantation is very high, mainly for bone marrow, heart, liver, kidney, and lungs. An increase in the number of acute illnesses and a rise in the number of geriatric population are factors leading to a surge in organ failures globally, therefore driving demand for organ transplantation procedures.
Tissue banks are institutions that recover and store human cadaver tissues for medical research and education. With an increase in demand for tissue transplantation, the demand for tissue banks providing services like assessing donor suitability, processing, recovery, storage, labeling, and delivery of tissues has increased considerably. Tissue banks primarily use low-temperature storage to maintain and store tissues under ideal conditions.
Also, advances in technology and instruments, including centrifuge and cryopreservation systems, facilitate efficient preservation of the tissue. In addition, computerized support systems with advanced hardware and software allow maintenance of the tissues more quickly with high efficiency. Therefore, with these developments seen in tissue banks, the storage and retrieval of organs have become relatively easier, thereby propelling the growth of the organ transplantation market.
Advanced technologies have led to an evolution in organ transplantation techniques and procedures, which is expected to propel market growth. Novel and improved transplantation products, including tissue products, tissue typing technology, and surgical medical instruments can be attributed to market expansion. Developments in PCR technique, such as improvements in system design and advanced assays, provide high precision and effectiveness in tissue typing.
Further, technical advances in the field of 3D bioprinting are also boosting the adoption of organ transplantation. The continuous shortage of organ donors and the increasing number of patients on the waiting list for organ transplants have increased the demand for 3D bioprinting. These techniques are used to create customized prosthetics, fabricate tissue, and support transplantation through synthetic models.
Improving organ preservation facilities is also boosting the demand for these procedures. Preservation of organs is of paramount importance during transplantation surgery. Change in donor demography directly impacts the outcome of procedures. Organ preservation is a “supply line” for organ transplantation. The best method to use a preserved organ is based on the suppression of metabolism by hypothermia. Consequently, the introduction of such advanced techniques has led to the growth of the transplantation market, driving the number of organ transplant procedures globally.
Transplant rejection is a process in which the receiver’s immune system attacks the transplanted organ or tissue, identifying the transplanted organ or tissue to be foreign. Typically, three types of rejections are reported—hyper-acute rejection, acute rejection, and chronic rejection. Despite donor matching, tissue typing, and usage of immunosuppressants, there are instances where transplants are rejected by an individual’s body, resulting in failure of the organ transplanted. Not adhering to immunosuppressive drugs is one of the primary reasons for transplant rejection. Possible complications due to transplant rejection are certain types of cancers, infections, loss of function in transplanted tissue or organ, and severe side effects due to inappropriate medicinal dosages.
Immunosuppressive drugs are used on a large scale in transplant procedures and are vital in preventing organ rejections. Therefore, the segment is expected to grow at a steady rate. The advent of ortho-biologics has driven the segment considerably in the past few years and is likely to proliferate in the near future. Hence, immunosuppressive drugs provide lucrative opportunities for the market of transplantation to grow.
Similarly, the availability of artificial organs is also boosting the transplantation market growth. Different types of artificial organs are available in the market. Based on material, these artificial organs are classified into mechanical, biomechanical, and biological. Mechanical organs are made up of inanimate polymers, such as plastic or metals. Biomechanical organs are made up of living cells and inanimate polymers. Biological (bioartificial) organs are made up of living cells and are biodegradable.
The rapid breakout of coronavirus at the start of 2019 has thrown the worldwide healthcare system into disarray. Due to the large number of coronavirus patients admitted to public and private institutions, governing bodies have been forced to postpone elective and non-urgent surgery in hospitals and ambulatory care facilities. The pandemic also resulted in a decline in organ transplant surgery registrations worldwide.
The decrease in transplantation and organ donation procedures is mainly due to the unavailability of resources, engaged surgeons, lockdown, and travel restrictions. Patients with positive reports for COVID-19 are refrained from donating organs due to the possibilities of infection. In addition, possible drug interaction of immunosuppressant drugs with COVID-19 treatment drugs is also one of the prime factors affecting the transplantation procedures. It has also resulted in many organ rejections from transplant donors.
Markets have suffered huge losses due to the pandemic, leading the world into financial crises. The COVID-19 outbreak has led to drastic changes, and the long-term impact of the pandemic is disturbing. According to the World Economic Forum, it could take up to 3 years to recover from the COVID-19 crisis. Nonetheless, the market of transplantation is likely to gain momentum after a significant decrease in the caseloads of coronavirus patients.
The global transplantation market is segmented by product, application, end-user, and region.
Based on product, the global market of transplantation is segmented into immunosuppressive drugs, tissue products, and preservation solutions. The tissue products market was valued at USD 7,528.3 million in 2021 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 9.2% from 2022 to 2030 to reach an estimated value of USD 16,691.2 million by 2030. The tissue products segment held the highest revenue in 2021, owing to the increased adoption and availability of these products for the treatment of organ or tissue transplantation. The increasing number of transplantation procedures such as cochlear, heart valves, bone marrow, and orthopedic soft tissues is attributed to the growth of the segment. In addition, new product development is also fueling market growth.
Based on application, the global market transplantation is segmented into tissue transplantation and organ transplantation. Tissue transplantation dominated the market, valued at USD 7,907.3 million in 2021. It is expected to grow at a CAGR of 9.7% from 2022 to 2030 to reach an estimated value of USD 18,267.0 million by 2030. The increasing number of accidents is expected to boost the demand for tissue products. According to the CDC, in 2017, there were 139 million emergency department visits in the US. The number of injury-related visits was 40 million. Emergency department visits resulting in hospital admission were 14.5 million. Thus, the abovementioned factors are expected to boost the growth of the tissue transplantation market.
Based on end-user, the global market transplantation is segmented into hospitals, transplant centers, and others. The hospital segment was valued at USD 6,481.3 million in 2021 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 9.1% to reach an estimated value of USD 14,251.9 million by 2030. The hospital segment held the highest market share owing to increasing admissions of patients with organ failure. Many organ transplants are conducted at hospitals as they are the primary treatment center. Since most hospitals have well-defined databases to check for the availability of organs, a large number of transplant procedures are performed here. The transplantation centers segment is expected to witness the highest growth rate during the forecast period. They are engaged explicitly in transplant surgeries and raise awareness about organ transplantation to encourage organ donation.
The global transplantation market is segmented as North America, Asia-Pacific, Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East and Africa. North America held the dominant share of the transplantation market due to well-developed healthcare facilities and the local presence of many large biotechnology and medical device companies. The North American transplantation market share was valued at USD 5,246.3 million in 2021 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 8.2% during the forecast period, to reach an expected value of USD 10,707.8 million in 2030.
According to Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network, 118,020 individuals required organ transplantation in the US in 2017. With a rise in the number of chronic diseases, such as cancer, kidney diseases, and cardiac disorders, incidences of organ failure have also increased. This has led to high demand for organ donors, which has encouraged the opening of a large number of transplant centers in the region, further driving the market.
Asia-Pacific consists of emerging economies like Japan, China, and India. The Asia-Pacific transplantation market share was valued at USD 2,661.9 million in 2021 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 11.25% during the forecast period, to reach an expected value of USD 6,485.1 million in 2030. These countries have a large population base with a high incidence of chronic diseases. An increase in chronic diseases that lead to organ failure is expected to boost transplant market growth.
The countries are technologically advanced and offer various surgical procedures with booming medical tourism. The low cost of surgical procedures in the region allows a large number of patients to visit for medical reasons. Thus, an increase in the number of chronic diseases leading to organ failure and a rise in medical tourism has contributed significantly to the growth of the transplantation market in the region.