Vaccination of animals is the process of immunizing domestic, livestock, or wild animals. The occupation is connected to veterinary medicine. These vaccines enhance an animal's immune system without causing the disease itself. When healthy animals are immunized, their immune systems respond to the vaccine and remember the pathogen they were vaccinated against. Therefore, if vaccinated animals are exposed to the pathogen against which they have been immunized, they can be considered disease-resistant. Vaccines for animals are essential for enhancing the animals' health and minimizing their owners' financial losses. Due to their mechanisms of action, attenuated and subunit vaccines are advantageous for disease prevention. Vaccines for animals are eco-friendly products that decrease the use of antibiotics and the likelihood of drug-resistant microorganisms. They safeguard animal health by immunizing against a particular disease.
Vaccines for animals play a crucial role in the protection of animal and public health, ensuring the productivity of food animals to feed a growing human population. Vaccines for animals have also reduced the dangers posed by the overuse of antibiotics to food and companion animals. By aiding in eradicating zoonotic diseases transmitted from animals to humans, veterinary vaccinations significantly impact public health. Vaccinating domestic and wild animals against rabies has significantly eradicated human rabies in developed nations. Genetic engineering advances have produced new vaccines, including gene-deleted marker vaccines, virus-like particle vaccines, recombinant modified live virus vaccines, chimeric vaccines, and DNA vaccines. The widespread use of animal vaccines is necessary to effectively control animal diseases, and vaccines must be available at affordable prices. Vaccine technological advances reduce the cost of veterinary vaccines.
The global increase in pet ownership has substantially impacted the market expansion of animal vaccines. Companion animals play an essential aspect in enhancing the quality of life by positively influencing human health, thereby improving their physical well-being. As a result of most families viewing their pets as members, there has been an increase in pet ownership in many regions of the world.
According to Animal Medicines Australia Pty Ltd., Australia had almost 29 million pets in 2019. Additionally, an increase in disposable income in India has led to a rise in pet ownership in recent years. In addition, there has been a rise in animal health awareness among the general public. This leads to an increase in the demand for veterinary medicines, which drives the global expansion of the animal vaccines market.
Moreover, some of the most prevalent diseases among livestock and companion animals are infectious and contagious illnesses. Highly infectious diseases such as canine distemper can spread through the air to other companion animals. In addition, conditions such as foot-and-mouth disease and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia affect the livestock. The high prevalence of this disease has increased the demand for vaccines to improve both human and animal financial and physical well-being. As a result, the rise in disease incidence among livestock and companion animals is projected to drive the demand for animal vaccines.
National lockdowns, government regulations, and a persistent rise in infection rates in several nations have significantly impacted veterinary care facilities. As a result of COVID-19, many hospitals and clinics have witnessed a decline in veterinary patient visits, thereby reducing client contact. Diverse veterinary organizations worldwide proposed limiting patient care to critically ill animals and emergencies, rescheduling annual exams and elective procedures such as vaccinations, and reducing the number of elective courses. Consequently, this factor slowed the market's growth rate for animal vaccines during the initial lockdown. In addition, the pandemic weakened the negotiating position of farms and pet owners.
Furthermore, several manufacturers suffered setbacks as the market growth rate slowed due to the pandemic and supply chain disruptions. In contrast, the pandemic's recovery in the first few months of 2021 created new opportunities for the animal vaccines market. In addition, the rise in COVID-19 infections in animals alarmed veterinary organizations worldwide, prompting them to test samples from domesticated and companion animals for the virus. This greatly facilitated the use of these animals for experimental testing of the SARS-CoV-2 animal vaccine, which served as a valuable model for screening vaccines.
North America is envisioned to lead the market with a share of USD 5,349 million and a CAGR of 5% over the forecast period. This is due to established veterinary organizational structures and the desire of individuals to protect animal health. Vaccine manufacturing technology, particularly the rabies vaccine, has made significant strides. Research involving the production of appropriate antigens using fermentation technology and continuous cell lines as a substrate has increased in the region.
Dogs are immunized with vaccines produced from inactivated cell cultures. Due to the constant advancement of vaccine technology, these vaccines are easily accessible and affordably priced. In addition, an increase in pet ownership in the region and a greater awareness of companion animal health contribute to the market's growth. According to a survey conducted by the American Pet Products Association, approximately 72.9 million US households had pets in 2011–2012. In 2018, the number increased to about 84.6 million, representing a significant increase from the previous year.
The value of the European region is anticipated to increase at a CAGR of 5.7% and reach USD 4,638 million by 2030. Europe is renowned for its extensive scientific research, innovation, and development in animal health. The increase in pet ownership in Europe contributes to the growth of the European animal vaccines market. In 2017, an estimated 80 million European households had at least one pet animal, according to the European Pet Food Industry Federation (FEDIAF). Numerous European nations, including France, Germany, and the United Kingdom, keep cats as companion animals. Consequently, the expansion of the market is fueled by an increase in the adoption of companion animals in Europe and an increase in the awareness of animal health.
Furthermore, developing diseases and stringent regulations observed in the sustainability of livestock contribute significantly to the growth of the European market for animal vaccines. The European pharmacopeia has formulated several vaccination dosage regulations. Each manufactured batch of vaccines must be subjected to efficacy testing, which consists of tests demonstrating their appropriate potency and safety. These regulations ensure the proper administration of veterinary vaccines, thereby expanding their use in disease prevention.