The global cytokine market size was valued at USD 70.7 billion in 2022. It is projected to reach USD 148.56 billion by 2031, growing at a CAGR of 8.40% during the forecast period (2023-2031).
A cytokine is a collection of proteins, peptides, or glycoproteins released by particular cells to regulate the development and function of the immune system and blood cells. Due to its high-affinity picomolar concentrations, it can control the immune response, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. To assist in avoiding or managing chemotherapy side effects and treat cancer, it is typically injected under the skin, into muscles, or veins. Additionally, it increases anti-cancer activity by transmitting signals that cause normal cells to live longer and malignant ones to die. In recent years, cytokines have played a significant role in cancer therapy by stimulating the immune system of cancer patients.
Interferon alpha (IFN) is approved for adjuvant treatment of wholly resected high-risk melanoma patients and several refractory malignancies, and high-dose interleukin-2 (HDIL-2) is approved for the treatment of metastatic renal cell cancer and melanoma. According to the research article "Cytokines in the Treatment of Cancer," published in 2019, the cytokine market is primarily driven by the growing acceptance of cancer therapy. Additionally, the increasing role of cytokines in stem cell therapy is anticipated to fuel the market under study.
A blood illness known as neonatal sepsis affects infants younger than 90 days old. In the first week of life, sepsis with early onset is observed. After one week and up to three months of age, sepsis develops slowly. In addition, 85% of neonates with early-onset sepsis manifested within 24 hours, 5% during 24–48 hours, and a lower number within 48–72 hours, according to the research article "Neonatal Sepsis," which was published in 2019. In the United States, there are 0.3-2 cases of early-onset sepsis that can be verified by culture for every 1000 live births. Additionally, 15%–30% of newborns with septic meningitis experience lasting brain impairment.
The high cost of cytokines-based therapies and assays is anticipated to impede the expansion of the market under study, even though cytokines have the potential to be involved in a range of applications, including cancer therapy, stem cell therapy, and diagnostics. Since cytokines are crucial participants in the development or regression of a pathological process and serve as biomarkers for many diseases, cytokine tests are essential in diagnosing and monitoring conditions. Bioassays, protein microarrays, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), sandwich ELISA, Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) electrochemiluminescence, and bead-based multiplex immunoassays are only a few of the techniques and protocols used in cytokines testing (MIA). Most of these tests are complex and expensive due to their high level of sophistication.
The mesenchymal, epithelial, and endothelial cells are directed toward growth factors and cytokines. The intricate network of growth factors and cytokines aids all tissues and organs' cellular differentiation and regeneration. As a result, cytokines are thought to be extremely important in stem cell therapy. It is anticipated that using stem cells in regenerative medicine and particular cytokines and growth factors will hold significant promise for treating many human diseases. For example, the Boston Stem Cell Center has provided stem cell therapies by combining specific cytokines, growth factors, and interleukins to mediate musculoskeletal repair. This aids in programming the repair process and tailoring it to the type of tissue in musculoskeletal conditions and injuries.
The global cytokine market is segmented by cytokine type and therapeutic application.
Based on cytokine type, the global cytokine market is bifurcated into tumor necrosis factor-TNF, interleukins-II, interferons-IFN, and others.
The tumor necrosis factor-TNF segment is the major contributor to the market and is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 8.90% during the forecast period. The multifunctional cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) controls various biological processes, including cell division, proliferation, death, lipid metabolism, and coagulation. One of the earliest cytokines to be identified is tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha. It helps trigger proinflammatory responses to pathogens and mainly affects leukocytes and vascular endothelial cells when acting locally (autocrine and paracrine). TNF cytokines are also beneficial for cell apoptosis, cachexia, cell proliferation, differentiation, lipid metabolism, and coagulation, among other processes. Some crucial TNF-based drugs are Infliximab, golimumab, etanercept/Enbrel, and tasonermin. Sigma Aldrich and R&D Systems are two primary biological product manufacturers involved in synthesizing TNF.
A collection of naturally occurring proteins known as interleukins serves as a communication bridge between cells. They have a significant role in controlling cell proliferation, motility, differentiation, and immune response stimulation. Additionally, the market has seen a noticeable change in how autoimmune disorders are treated, with a greater emphasis on tailored medicines. The segment's growth is projected to be boosted by late-stage pipeline products and new product releases.
Small signaling proteins called cytokines, or chemokines, are released by cells. These cytokines are crucial in activating cell movement in response to a chemical (chemokine) gradient and the migration of cells through venules from the blood into the tissue and vice versa. Drugs that block chemokine receptors (CCRs) have many therapeutic applications, including treating several diseases, including HIV. For instance, Maraviroc, a member of the Chemokine R5 receptor antagonist class of antiretrovirals used to treat HIV infection, is marketed under the trade names Selzentry and Celsentri. It is categorized as an entrance inhibitor as well.
Based on therapeutic application, the global cytokine market is bifurcated into cancer, asthma and airway inflammation, arthritis, and other therapeutic applications.
The arthritis segment is the major contributor to the market and is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 8.90% during the forecast period. One of the primary uses for cytokine-related medications is arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis are all covered by this application. An autoimmune illness that affects joints and causes inflammation and pain over time is arthritis. Additionally, the disease typically affects people over 65 who are older. The elderly population in the world will probably boost market expansion. As a result, rheumatoid arthritis is frequently treated with TNF alpha and interleukin inhibitors, several of which have received approval. Additionally, the increased disease load is likely to drive market expansion.
The variety of cytokines created in the cancer microenvironment plays a significant part in the development of the disease. Cancer formation and progression can be slowed by cytokine generated in response to infection, inflammation, and immune responses. As an alternative, cancer cells might react to cytokines produced by the host, which encourage proliferation, reduce apoptosis, and aid invasion and metastasis. According to Roma Pahwa's essay from 2020, mesothelioma, kidney, prostate, ovarian, hepatocellular, pancreatic, colorectal, lung, and mesothelioma appear to be affected by persistent low-level inflammation. Cytokines are the leading causes of inflammation and the start of the immune response, which can cause cancer.
Several particular cytokines and chemokine inhibitors are now being researched for the treatment of asthma because they play a crucial role in orchestrating and maintaining inflammation in asthmatic airways. Since airway inflammation often occurs in many respiratory diseases, the segment's expansion is projected to be aided by the rising burden of respiratory diseases. According to the Global Asthma 2018 Report, asthma affects 339 million people and claims the lives of about 1000 individuals each day. Similarly, according to WHO updates for 2020, more than 50 million people worldwide suffer from occupational lung disorders, and 65 million have mild to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the third most significant cause of mortality globally.
The global cytokine market is bifurcated into four regions: North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and LAMEA.
North America is the most significant revenue contributor and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 9.20% during the forecast period. Numerous public and commercial businesses that invest in personalized medicine, cell signaling, and related research endeavors may be found in the United States. The National Institutes of Health has supported several small-scale initiatives by private businesses over the years through microgrants. In addition, according to a recent 2019 publication by the NIH in StatPearls, some of the most prevalent chronic inflammatory-mediated disorders in the United States are diabetes, cardiovascular disease, arthritic and joint conditions, allergies, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Major biopharmaceutical companies cooperate with numerous institutions or purchasing businesses with a robust inflammatory product portfolio because inflammation is associated with many disorders.
Europe is expected to grow at a CAGR of 8.90% during the forecast period. Osteoarthritis, the most prevalent form of arthritis in the United Kingdom, affects almost nine million people annually, fueling the market growth. These figures demonstrate that the illness burden is rising, boosting the nation's need for cytokines. GLOBOCAN estimates that there were 446,942 new cases of cancer diagnosed in the U.K. in 2018. and about 56,401 (12.6%) of them were brand-new instances of prostate cancer, while 55,439 (12.4%) were brand-new cases of breast cancer. The most prevalent cancers found in the U.K. are those of the prostate, breast, lung, colon, and skin types.
One of the largest healthcare sectors in Asia-Pacific is found in China. The growing population of patients with chronic conditions is anticipated to be a significant factor in the market's growth. According to the World Population Ageing 2019 study, China had 164,487 (11.5%) people who were 65 or older in 2019; by 2030, this number is expected to rise to 246,986 (16.9%). The aging population, increasingly vulnerable to chronic diseases, is projected to propel market expansion. In China, cancer is the leading cause of death and is a major global health issue. According to GLOBOCAN projections for December 2020, there will be 3,002,899 fatalities and 4,568,754 new cancer cases. However, China's high cancer burden continues to fuel an increase in cancer therapy research and development.
In the Middle East and Africa, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates are two of the most developed markets with a strong healthcare infrastructure and the largest per capita pharma spending. Cancer is one of the leading causes of illness and mortality in these areas. Around 27,885 new instances of cancer have been recorded in Saudi Arabia, while 4807 new cases have been seen in the United Arab Emirates, according to GLOBOCAN December 2020. The GCC region has seen a rise in the incidence of cancer, which is also anticipated to increase the demand for cytokines. CYTOBALANCE by Bioscience Institute, United Arab Emirates, helps detect the increase in cytokines in healthy people without chronic disease symptoms or cancer prodromic genetic alterations.
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