The global dysmenorrhea treatment market was valued at USD 4,365 million in 2022. It is estimated to reach USD 8,799 million by 2031, growing at a CAGR of 8.10% during the forecast period (2023–2031). Dysmenorrhea is the medical word for menstrual cramps, in which a woman has intense abdominal discomfort or cramps that may radiate to her lower legs and back. The majority of females experience dysmenorrhea throughout their adolescence, usually four to five years following their first menstrual cycle. Dysmenorrhea can be divided into primary and secondary. Primary dysmenorrhea involves painful and recurring menstrual cramps, whereas secondary dysmenorrhea is characterized by pain that could be due to infection in women's reproductive organs. The usage of a heating pad may be part of the treatment. NSAIDs like ibuprofen, hormonal birth control, and the IUD with progestogen are a few medications that could be helpful. In addition, there is some evidence that supplementation with magnesium or vitamin B1 is beneficial.
Menstrual problems are a problem for the female population in developing and emerging nations due to a lack of knowledge about treatments, societal pressure, and other causes. Globally, women's and girls' menstrual health is monitored by international health organizations like WHO. More than 1.2 billion children between the ages of 10 and 19 comprise 16% of the world's population, according to UNICEF. Primary and secondary dysmenorrhea disorders are generally observed among adolescent girls and young women. According to a WHO study, many teenage girls experienced premenstrual syndrome, irregular periods, dysmenorrhea, polymenorrhea, and oligomenorrhea.
Dysmenorrhea was the third-largest menstrual problem faced by adolescent girls after premenstrual syndrome and irregular menstruation periods. In addition, dysmenorrhea and premenstrual symptoms collectively affect the girls' daily activities. These two medical conditions cause unbearable abdominal and back cramps leading to distress, heavy blood flow, and adolescent constipation. These medical situations support the growth of the global dysmenorrhea treatment market.
Dysmenorrhea is one of the most prominent gynecological ailments for women of generative age. Genetic heredity is one of the factors that cause severe dysmenorrhea disorders. Companies such as Pfizer Inc. (US) and 23andMe (US) found the variant of a gene that triggers menstrual cramps in adolescents and young women. In addition, the nerve growth factor (NGF) gene is associated with such conditions in women. The NGF factor is located in the genome that regulates the functioning of the ovary and fat tissues. It is also linked with menstrual pain disorders.
Moreover, according to the research conducted by scientists, acute menstrual inflammation is triggered by a biomarker known as C-reactive protein (CRP). Many other genes are involved in developing dysmenorrhea, but the actual reason for the menstrual cramps is still unknown. The market players are capitalizing on R&D activities to find the primary reason for the menstrual disorder. Additionally, the researchers are analyzing genomes to find the ancestral cause of the medical condition, boosting market growth.
Women who experience menstrual cramps can find relief with dysmenorrhea therapy. The patient's health is adversely affected by various drugs and hormonal treatments. Drowsiness, stomach cramps, and an increase in the thickness of lung secretions are a few of the frequent adverse effects of dysmenorrhea treatment. In addition, the rare side effects observed among dysmenorrhea-diagnosed patients include decreased blood platelets, low levels of white blood cells, vocal cord swelling, acute liver failure, a blood disorder, stevens-johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and inflammation of the skin. Moreover, a severe expression of the dysmenorrhea products was observed, leading to abnormal liver function. These side effects limit the related products' sales and further hamper the market growth.
The increasing female population across the globe and increasing menstrual health awareness among developing girls is creating opportunities for the dysmenorrhea treatment market. The demand for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is rising owing to increasing cases of primary dysmenorrhea. The NSAIDs prohibit the production of cyclooxygenase-mediated prostaglandin, which is responsible for menstrual pain.
Additionally, NSAIDs minimize the volume of menstrual flow, relieving the patient from back and abdominal pain. Moreover, some NSAIDs suggested by healthcare experts include ibuprofen, naproxen sodium, mefenamic acid, and celecoxib. Furthermore, the market players are developing better NSAIDs to offer accurate and effective drugs with minimum side effects. These factors are estimated to strengthen the market growth in the projected period.
The global dysmenorrhea treatment market is segmented by type, type of treatment, and end-user.
By type, the global market is divided into primary dysmenorrhea and secondary dysmenorrhea.
The primary dysmenorrhea segment is responsible for the largest market share and is anticipated to grow at a CAGR of 8.27% over the forecast period. Menstrual cramps that come on frequently and are excruciatingly painful just two days before menstrual flow are signs of primary dysmenorrhea. The duration of the pain, which can be between 12 and 72 hours, can range from minor to severe. It is observed in the back, lower abdomen, or thigh. Diarrhea, tiredness, nausea, and vomiting are just a few of the symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea. In addition, according to a published article in BMC Women's Health 2020, primary dysmenorrhea is one of the leading women hood problems affecting 90% of adolescent girls and 50% of menstruating women. The leading cause of primary dysmenorrhea is not well studied. Still, the commonly found risks are smoking, family history of dysmenorrhea, lack of oral contraceptives, higher severity of bleeding, shorter/longer menstrual period interval, stress, and menstrual cycle irregularity.
Secondary dysmenorrhea is defined as pelvic pain caused by a disorder or disease. Endometriosis is the leading cause of secondary dysmenorrhea in teenagers, according to a 2018 publication in the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Patients who experience persistent, clinically severe dysmenorrhea should be evaluated for endometriosis. Diagnostic criteria for secondary dysmenorrhea include a physical exam, family history, and pelvic ultrasonography. Due to pelvic pathology or another established medical disease, this type of dysmenorrhea is characterized by painful menses. Other causes of secondary dysmenorrhea include infection, myomas, müllerian anomalies, adenomyosis, obstructive reproductive tract anomalies, or ovarian cysts.
By type of treatment, the global market is segmented into pain relievers, hormonal therapy, surgery, and others.
The hormonal therapy segment owns the highest market share and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 8.57% over the forecast period. Hormone therapy products, also called birth control therapies, suppress ovulation and lower the severity of menstrual cramps. They contain hormones that regulate ovulation and menstrual cycles. Some hormone therapy products include birth control pills, vaginal rings, skin patches, Depo-Provera injections, intrauterine devices (IUDs), and implants, which contain hormones and release them as intended. They can also make periods less painful, lighter, and shorter. There are also hormonal therapies available for women suffering from secondary dysmenorrhea.
Surgical modes of treatment are usually used when other treatment options are ineffective or if the patient is suffering from secondary dysmenorrhea. Sometimes, surgical methods such as laparoscopy detect the underlying causes of dysmenorrhea, such as fibroids, endometriosis, adhesions, ovarian cysts, and ectopic pregnancy. Some surgical treatments include laparoscopy for pelvic endometriosis or ovarian cysts, dilation and curettage (D&C) for uterine polyp removal, endometrial ablation to destroy the uterus lining, and hysterectomy for the complete removal of the uterus, which is generally the last resort. In addition, according to the WHO, in March 2021, around 190 million women and girls of reproductive age had endometriosis globally. Hence, the increase in the underlying causes of secondary dysmenorrhea will lead to more demand for this segment.
By end-user, the global market is divided into hospitals and clinics, research centers, and others.
The hospitals and clinics segment is the highest contributor to the market and is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 8.37% over the forecast period. Hospitals and clinics provide the expertise and the technology required to diagnose and provide treatments to women suffering from dysmenorrhea correctly. They also help patients with proper consultation and prescriptions for drugs to be taken in safe amounts, especially in the case of secondary dysmenorrhea, where proper consultation from medical experts is required. Surgical therapies can be performed efficiently in hospitals, with the option to patients for an extended stay and for patients to recuperate after surgery. Additionally, the pharmacy stores in hospitals & clinics help sell many dysmenorrhea treatment products, such as NSAIDs, hormonal therapy products, and birth control pills, which also supplement the market's growth.
Research centers extensively research the available treatment options and innovate more effective novel treatments with fewer side effects. Furthermore, research centers study the treatments, such as NSAIDs and other medications, for their side effects on the users. In the FDA post-approval monitoring protocols, they recommend modifying prescriptions as necessary. Research centers also support drug companies in their drug development stages and product approvals. The rising investment in healthcare R&D is driving growth for the segment.
By region, the global dysmenorrhea treatment market is divided into the Americas, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and the Middle East and Africa.
Americas is the most significant shareholder in the global dysmenorrhea treatment market and is anticipated to grow at a CAGR of 7.42% during the forecast period. In the upcoming years, it is expected that the Americas will maintain its market dominance. The rising number of patients with menstruation abnormalities is responsible for a large portion of the predicted demand for dysmenorrhea treatment. For instance, out of 30,000 women surveyed in Canada between 18 and 49, 70.3% reported having monthly cramps or discomfort, while 49.5% reported having non-menstrual pelvic pain. This higher prevalence of menstrual pain among the population creates an opportunity for pharmaceutical companies and medical device manufacturers to develop refined products for treatment. Moreover, the incumbent players in the region face competition from start-ups involved in developing innovative dysmenorrhea treatment products. Thus, owing to the higher prevalence of menstrual pain, the presence of significant manufacturers and stiff competition from market entrants are expected to fuel the demand for dysmenorrhea treatment in the Americas.
Europe is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 7.92% over the forecast period. Clinical trials to treat the pain caused by dysmenorrhea are expected to lead to more effective ways to treat the condition over the forecast period. Moreover, the exclusivity offered by regulatory authorities to manufacturers for innovative and safe products helps gain revenue over a more extended period. For example, Bayer AG (Germany) introduced Mirena, the first levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine contraceptive in Finland, in 1990. Mirena helps address pains incurred due to heavy menstrual bleeding and was approved for six years of use by the US FDA in August 2020. The number of policies undertaken by the European Union to aid in essential medication, shelter, and rehabilitation to citizens from politically unstable countries creates opportunities for manufacturers to sign supply contracts over a longer interval of time. However, these factors are expected to support the growth of the dysmenorrhea treatment market in the region.
The dysmenorrhea treatment market in Asia-Pacific is one of the fastest growing. The region's expanding population and the greater public awareness of dysmenorrhea brought on by government initiatives are the main drivers of the market for dysmenorrhea treatments in the area. For instance, the Women and Child Welfare Department of the Pune Zilla Parishad in India introduced Sakhi Cells, a kiosk for relaxation and the distribution of needed drugs and other products, in March 2021 to address the needs of menstruation women. In addition, Indian Parliament passed the Menstruation Benefit Bill in 2018, allowing two paid monthly leave for menstruating women.
Apart from such initiatives by government agencies, the availability of over-the-counter products and new products launched in recent years are expected to increase the share of this region in the global market. For instance, Fuji Pharma's dysmenorrhea and endometriosis drugs sales volume has increased by 63% from 2018 to 2020 due to unmet demands in the excellent target market. The unmet need in the region is boosting manufacturers to launch products at affordable costs. Thus, the initiatives undertaken by governments to raise awareness, new products found by manufacturers in recent years, drugs available in the clinical pipeline, and significant unmet needs of patients in the region are favoring the growth of the dysmenorrhea treatment market.
The Middle East and Africa region is expected to witness significant growth in the coming years during the forecast period. These factors can be attributed to the growing awareness created by research studies and the severity of outcomes of undiagnosed cases. Moreover, increasing policies and campaigns focused on menstrual pain are expected to increase treatment rates in recent years. The welfare policies by the government, coupled with access to medication via online pharmacies, are expected to support the market's growth in this region.
The key players in the global market are
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