The global electric vehicle battery swapping market size was worth USD 125 million in 2021. It is projected to reach USD 890 million by 2030, growing at a CAGR of 24.4% during the forecast period (2022–2030). Electric car battery swapping is when a drained battery or battery pack in an electric vehicle can be swapped out for a fully charged one, obviating the need to wait for the vehicle's battery to charge. Compared to charging stations, battery swapping stations are a more efficient way to address range anxiety, with each battery change taking less than 10 minutes and taking up significantly less space. Furthermore, due to its impact on lowering the high upfront price of electric vehicles by decoupling battery ownership, battery-as-a-service (BaaS) is gaining traction in the battery swapping market. Battery swapping also minimizes vehicle downtime and acquisition expenses because the customer only pays for the energy used.
The industry is expected to rise because of increased demand for electric vehicles, a shortage of suitable public charging infrastructure, and shorter charging times. However, the market expansion is hampered by differences in battery technology and design and the expensive initial setup and operational costs of battery swapping stations. Furthermore, the increasing proliferation of shared e-mobility and market competitors' adoption of novel and improved battery swapping models and services will likely provide the attractive potential for market expansion.
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The popularity of electric vehicles has increased over the years as they are more efficient and eco-friendly. Furthermore, as consumer demand for increased vehicle efficiency and lower fuel prices grows, electric car technology continues to progress. Furthermore, in developed regions such as North America and Europe, rising fuel prices and stringent government rules governing carbon dioxide emissions are driving the adoption of electric vehicles.
On the other hand, electric vehicles have a limited range on a single charge and, depending on usage, may need to be charged twice a day, taking up to 6 to 10 hours to charge a battery fully. As a result, instead of the 6-10 hours per day that traditional charging requires, battery swapping results in near-zero downtime for electric vehicles.
Furthermore, the need for battery swapping stations is fueled by a lack of suitable public charging facilities for electric vehicles and a lack of standardization of charging infrastructure. Therefore, such factors collectively drive the growth of the electric vehicle battery swapping market.
The charging time is critical in the operation of electric cars, particularly in long-haul applications. Most electric vehicles currently use a slow charging technology to recharge their batteries. It takes up to eight hours for this charging device to fully charge a battery. Furthermore, most electric two-wheelers, three-wheelers, and four-wheelers come with onboard chargers that charge the vehicle at 2.5–3 kW per hour. In less than an hour, these chargers can fully charge a two-wheeler (for a battery with an energy density of up to 3 kWh).
These chargers can charge a four-wheeler or larger vehicle with 12 kWh or more batteries in less than five to six hours. As a result, battery switching technology is critical in resolving these concerns. Swapping batteries in three minutes drastically reduces waiting time. The user only needs to visit a battery-swapping station and have the drained battery replaced with a fully charged one. As a result, battery changing minimizes the time it takes to charge an electric car, propelling the market for electric vehicle battery swapping forward.
The difference in battery design and related technology is one of the critical barriers for battery swapping stations. A battery pack must be designed in a specific way so it can be easily and rapidly removed from a vehicle and re-attached. However, only a few vehicle manufacturers presently offer such battery pack designs.
In addition, vehicle manufacturers are unlikely to agree on standard battery specifications as battery technology is a crucial differentiation. Until all vehicle manufacturers come to a mutual platform to offer standard battery specifications, it will remain challenging to swap vehicle batteries at swap stations for different models. Therefore, differentiation in battery technologies and design is anticipated to hinder the electric vehicle battery swapping market growth.
Electric vehicle sharing services are currently experiencing rapid expansion around the globe, owing to factors such as an increase in the cost of vehicle ownership and stringent government norms on vehicular emission. These vehicles are majorly used for passenger carriers and run on average around 100 km per day. Since with each full charge, these vehicles run less than 100 km, they must be charged twice or thrice a day. Thus, battery swapping stations offer the best alternative to slow battery charging problems and help drivers optimum use of operational hours.
In addition, compared to other types of shared mobility services, electric scooters and bike-sharing services can be more hyper-localized and solve issues of last-mile commute. The size of a battery pack in such vehicles is also more minor than in other electric mobility, thus making it easier and faster to swap a depleted battery with charged batteries. Therefore, owing to the rise in run-time and improved utilization of operational hours for shared e-mobility drivers, the demand for electric vehicle battery swapping is on the rise, which provides lucrative opportunities for market growth.
The global electric vehicle battery swapping market share is segmented based on service type, vehicle type, and region.
Based on service type, the global electric vehicle battery swapping market is bifurcated into Subscription and Pay-per-Use models.
The Subscription Model is the highest market shareholder and is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 23.7% during the forecast period. The battery swapping subscription model is primarily driven owing to its benefits offered over the pay-per-use model, such as battery leasing, low cost per swapping, and affordability. In addition, the market has witnessed a surge in the adoption of subscription models as subscribers do not have to worry about maintenance, roadside assistance, and service expense of the battery.
The Pay-per-Use Model is the fastest-growing segment. Pay-per-use model is when a customer is charged for specific usage of battery swapping services. Pay-per-use model does not assume a fixed monthly or annual fee; instead, a customer makes a single purchase at a fixed price based on usage. The rise in preference of vehicle drivers to pay as per their usage, owing to the lack of fixed usage pattern of their vehicles, is the primary factor that propels the adoption of the pay-per-use model. In addition, market players are focused on offering new products & services and working in collaborations with other market leaders to expand their reach, thus enabling customers to adopt electric mobility using an innovative pay-per-use model.
Based on vehicle type, the global electric vehicle battery swapping market is categorized into Two-Wheeler, Three-Wheeler Passenger Vehicles, Three-Wheeler Light Commercial Vehicles, Four-Wheeler Light Commercial Vehicles, Buses, and Others.
The Two-Wheeler segment holds the highest market share and is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 25.7% during the forecast period. Two-wheelers include electric bikes, electric scooters, and electric bicycles, which have a motor installed to propel the vehicle. They also include a strong battery attached to the vehicle's engine that is responsible for the power supply to the motor. Electric two-wheelers battery swapping technique is gaining immense traction in the global electric vehicle charging infrastructure due to the developing EV charging infrastructure globally. Governments worldwide and private companies are investing in developing battery swapping infrastructure, which leads to the market's growth.
Three-Wheeler Passenger vehicles include five to seven-seater tempos and e-rickshaws intended to carry passengers from one location to another. Most of the three-wheeler passenger vehicles running across different countries are electric-based, which require a dedicated battery for power supply to the installed motor. Other companies have introduced numerous developments toward introducing the battery swapping technique for three-wheeler passenger vehicles, which eventually supported the market's growth. For instance, in January 2021, the India-based electric vehicle startup, Zypp, planned to set up 5,000 battery swapping stations for two-wheelers and three-wheelers across the nation over the next three years, followed by an investment of USD 66 million during the period. Similar developments have been carried out across different parts of the globe, which provide better opportunities for market growth.
Three-Wheeler Light Commercial Vehicles (LCVs) include vehicles designed for lightweight cargo transportation from one location to another. They have low horsepower compared to heavy commercial vehicles and are mostly limited within cities to transport cargo from one place to another. The upcoming Euler Motor's electric three-wheeler light commercial cargo vehicle is an example considered under this segment. The popularity of battery swapping usage in electric three-wheeler is expected to increase the daily operational hours of such vehicles. Electric three-wheeler LCVs are generally used for load carriages and, on average, run for over 100 km per day. This requires vehicles to recharge their discharging batteries quickly to utilize further. Therefore, battery swapping stations offer the best alternatives to counter the problem of the slow recharging of such batteries.
Region-wise, the global electric vehicle battery swapping market share is analyzed across North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and LAMEA.
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The Asia-Pacific electric vehicle battery swapping market is projected to grow at a CAGR of 23.3% during the forecast period. Asia-Pacific includes Japan, China, India, South Korea, Indonesia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and the rest of Asia-Pacific. The rest of Asia-Pacific includes Malaysia, Australia, Singapore, and New Zealand. Asia-Pacific is expected to be the leading market for battery-swapping stations, owing to an increase in sales of electric vehicles in countries such as China and Japan. This rise is attributed to the extensive efforts of governments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Governments of many Asian countries have plans to end the production and sales of gasoline and diesel vehicles in the coming years. This move is expected to increase the market for electric vehicles in the region, benefiting the growth of the electric vehicle battery swapping market during the forecast period.
Europe is the second-largest region and is projected to reach USD 205 million, growing at a CAGR of 25.1% during the forecast period. Europe includes the UK, the Netherlands, Germany, France, and the Rest of Europe. The rest of Europe includes Italy, Sweden, and Poland. An increase in initiatives to enhance the efficiency of the transport system, along with strategizing low-emission mobility, are the prominent factors that fuel the market's growth. Stringent government regulations to curb pollution levels and increase environmental awareness encourage people to opt for electric cars in Europe. However, recharging stations in Europe are still not developed to support the growing sales of electric vehicles. Moreover, deployment of recharging stations is uneven, with negligible stations in the eastern European countries. Therefore, such factors are anticipated to drive the growth of the electric vehicle battery swapping market in Europe.
LAMEA is the fastest-growing region. It includes Colombia, Peru, Kenya, Egypt, Brazil, and the rest of LAMEA. Countries across LAMEA are focusing on electrification of their public transport as rapid urbanization leads to traffic congestion and pollution. An increase in expansion by leading market players to promote their products and services, coupled with a surge in demand for electric mobility, are the primary factors that propel the growth of the electric vehicle battery swapping market in LAMEA. For instance, in 2020, universal energy infrastructure and services provider SUN Mobility announced to expand battery swapping solutions in several global markets, including countries in Africa and Latin America.