The global enzymes market size was valued at USD 9796 million in 2021 and is expected to grow at USD 17709 million by 2030. The market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 6.8% during the forecast period (2022–2030). Enzymes are biocatalysts that speed up or slow down biochemical reactions. Enzymes are currently used as biocatalysts in a variety of industrial and chemical processes. They are also important in chemical engineering, food science, and agriculture. The use of enzymes reduces manufacturing costs, speeds up the process, and improves the quality of the reaction substrate. As a result, they are widely used in the detergent industry to help with stain removal. Increased demand for cellulosic and amylase-based biofuels, increased demand for effective pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, increased use of functional foods and beverages (that contain enzymes), and increased use of enzyme-based techniques for the detection and treatment of various chronic diseases are some of the factors driving the global enzymes market's growth. However, market growth is hampered by restrictions relating to enzyme chemical properties and safety concerns arising from enzyme contamination.
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Enzymes are an important component of the pharmaceutical industry because they aid in the formulation of drugs. These enzymes aid in the formulation and manufacturing of API in pharmaceuticals. The increased awareness of chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes has boosted the demand for enzymes in pharmaceuticals and diagnostics. Increased incidences of type 1 and type 2 diabetes around the world, owing to sedentary lifestyles, urbanization, and an increase in cases of obesity, hypertension, and alcohol consumption, are expected to fuel demand for enzymes, propelling the enzymes market growth during the forecast period.
As a result, an increase in diabetes prevalence is expected to increase the demand for effective treatment, which can be accomplished by inhibiting digestive enzymes involved in starch and lipid digestion. Furthermore, the development of high-potency active pharmaceutical ingredient-based generic drugs has aided the global enzyme market's expansion significantly.
The global enzymes market size is expected to grow due to an increase in the incidence of digestive disorders such as pancreatic insufficiency, lactose intolerance, food allergies, celiac disease, and microbial control over the forecast period. In pancreatic insufficiency, for example, the pancreas is unable to produce enough digestive enzymes to aid in the digestion of food in the intestine. As a result, supplemental digestive enzymes such as proteolytic enzymes, amylolytic enzymes, and lipolytic enzymes can be used to treat this condition.
Exogenous enzymes derived from yeast and fungi can be used to replace native lactase in the case of lactose intolerance treatment. Furthermore, because the prevalence of most digestive diseases rises with age, the geriatric population is particularly vulnerable to these illnesses. As a result, the growing geriatric population increases the demand for effective medications, which drives the enzyme market forward.
Because enzymes are sensitive to changes in temperature, pH, and substrate concentration, they require a specific temperature and pH range to function. The use of appropriate enzymes in accordance with the manufacturing process poses the greatest challenge for drug formulation research and development. Analytical grades, pharmaceutical grades, and feed grades are the three categories in which enzymes are classified.
In the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), European Pharmacopeia (EP), and Japanese Pharmacopeia, some associations have standardized the grade of enzymes (JP). These enzymes should be used in accordance with the standards established by these organizations. As a result, the limited nature of enzymes creates barriers to market expansion.
The majority of enzymes are sold in dry form, which has a higher risk of contamination when exposed to air. Because of their proteinaceous nature, they may cause allergic reactions in some people. The enzymes used in pharmaceutical drug formulation should be completely pure and free of contamination. Furthermore, workers should be familiar with proper enzyme handling techniques. Apart from handling, enzyme selection is critical in a number of processes, particularly in the pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries. As a result, such critical issues associated with the handling of enzymes limit the overall market's growth.
Protein engineering is a new concept that has a big impact on the enzyme industry. Protein engineering is primarily concerned with changing the structure of proteins or constructing proteins from starch. In the industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical fields, it has a number of important applications. Proteins that have been scientifically and technologically modified have predefined properties that enable them to function as biological drugs. This strategy is expected to boost the research and biotechnology industries, boosting demand for diagnostic enzymes. Furthermore, as DNA manipulation technology improves, DNA sequencing costs decrease, increasing the demand for diagnostic enzymes, particularly in developed countries.
Owing to improved healthcare infrastructure and increased demand for better healthcare services, the emerging economies of Asia-Pacific and LAMEA offer lucrative growth opportunities for the enzymes industry. Furthermore, the growth of the market is expected to be aided by an increase in the number of manufacturing sectors in emerging countries such as India and China. Furthermore, recent scientific and technological advancements have resulted in the expansion of pharmaceutical manufacturing companies in both developed and developing economies.
In addition, due to patent expiration and rising demand for medicines, pharmaceutical companies are focusing on expanding in developing countries such as India, China, and Japan. The United States has one of the largest pharmaceutical markets, with China leading the BRIC nations, followed by Brazil, Russia, and India. Because of the abundance of resources, Asian countries have seen rapid growth in the pharmaceutical research and biotechnology industries. All of these factors are expected to create numerous opportunities for market growth over the forecast period.
The global market share is segmented on the basis of the source and the applications it is used for.
By source, the market is classified into microorganisms, plants, and animals, out of which the microorganisms have the major market share.
The most common source of industrial enzymes is microorganisms. The majority of enzymes come from microbial sources because they are more convenient and help with faster production, scale-up and recovery, and strain manipulation. The development of fermentation techniques for the production of microbial enzymes aids in the provision of an endless supply of enzymes. Bacteria, fungi, and yeast are all used to make various enzymes, which are then used in a variety of commercial applications. With all these things, the microorganisms segment is expected to grow at a CAGR of 6.1% during the forecast period.
Plant-derived enzymes are used in a variety of industries, including food and beverage, detergents, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and diagnostics. Proteases such as papain, ficin, and bromelain are examples of plant-derived enzymes that are used to make therapeutic proteins.
Furthermore, when compared to enzymes derived from other sources, such as animals, plant-derived enzymes are more stable at low pH and highly acidic conditions. This fuels the market for plant-derived enzymes, especially in low-pH applications. Plant-derived enzymes' reactivity is unaffected by temperature changes, making them ideal for use in reactions where temperature control is difficult. This is expected to increase demand for plant-derived enzymes, propelling the market forward.
Animal-derived enzymes come from places like the pancreas and stomachs of cows and pigs. Animal-derived digestive enzymes are less effective for supplementation than plant-derived enzymes because they are functional at high pH levels. Because the optimum body temperature varies from one animal to the next, animal enzymes are temperature sensitive. As a result, when compared to plant-based and microorganism-derived enzymes, animal-derived enzymes have some limitations in terms of application. This is why it is ranked second in terms of revenue generation in the global market by source segmentation.
The global market, when segmented by application, it is further divided into Food & Beverages, Household care, and Bioenergy, out of which the food and beverages segment has the major market share globally.
Food & Beverages
The food and beverage industry, which includes starch processing, baking, dairy, and breweries, is one of the largest application areas for enzymes. Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch to make syrups is one of the oldest uses of enzymes in the food industry. Furthermore, one of the most common uses of enzymes in the baking industry is to extend the shelf life of bread, improve quality, and maximize volume while maintaining a uniform structure. Enzymes are used in the dairy industry to coagulate milk for cheese production. Breweries also use enzymes to ensure that their beer is consistent and of high quality. With all these discussed factors, the segment is expected to grow at a CAGR of 7.4% during the forecast period.
One of the most important industries for enzymes is household care. Dishwashing and laundry both benefit from enzymes. These are the main ingredients in liquid and powder detergents that help with stain removal, washing efficiency, and garment care. Furthermore, the benefits of using enzymes in garment laundering have significantly increased the demand for enzyme-based products.
The global market share is primarily segmented into three regions, namely North America, Europe, and Asia-Pacific, where the North American region dominates the market with a major market share.
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The early adoption of advanced technology primarily drives the North American market in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries due to high per capita healthcare expenditures and the introduction of new enzyme-based drugs. Apart from their use in digestive aids, advances in enzyme formulation have aided in the discovery of newer applications for enzymes in pharmaceuticals. Furthermore, the market is expected to grow as a result of an increase in the number of strategic developments by key manufacturers, which is why it is estimated to grow with a CAGR of 6% over the forecast period.
The market in Europe is examined in five countries: the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Spain, Italy, and the rest of Europe. Europe has surpassed the United States as the second most lucrative market for enzyme producers. The market value of enzymes in Europe is rapidly increasing as a result of the rising population and increased consumption of processed foods.
The European enzyme market has grown as a result of the rising demand for protein engineering and its early adoption. Increased concerns about nutraceuticals, as well as ongoing research in the diagnostics field, have fueled the European market.
The Asia-Pacific market examines research findings from India, China, Japan, Australia, South Korea, and the rest of Asia-Pacific, which show distinct patterns in terms of healthcare awareness. Because of the rising population and consequent increase in food consumption, as well as a rise in per capita income, the region is expected to provide lucrative opportunities for both international and domestic market players. As a result, Asia-Pacific is forecast to grow at the highest CAGR of 8.5% during the forecast period, with an estimated market value of USD 5557 million by 2030.