The global extracorporeal membrane oxygenation machine market size was valued at USD 252.93 million in 2021. It is projected to reach USD 401.209 million by 2030, growing at a CAGR of 5.26% during the forecast period (2022–2030). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation machines are sophisticated medical devices that provide prolonged cardiac and respiratory support to patients with impaired hearts and lungs. The increasing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has spurred technological advancements in these systems. The development includes the introduction of hollow pumps, oxygenators, and heparin-coated cannulas for various surgical procedures. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) state that in the U.S., one person dies every 37 seconds from heart disease. In addition, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of death in the U.S. Survival rates for ECMO patients depend on the underlying disease and the patient's age. In addition, VV-ECMO is indicated for patients with potentially reversible respiratory failure, including severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ADRs), primary graft dysfunction after lung transplant, and pulmonary trauma.
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Rising Prevalence of Cardiopulmonary and Respiratory Diseases
Respiratory diseases include bronchiectasis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and lung cancer. COPD has been recognized as the third leading cause of death in the United States, following cancer and cardiac diseases. As per American Lung Association, more than 11 million Americans are diagnosed with COPD yearly. The World Health Organization evaluates that 17.5 million people worldwide die from cardiovascular diseases annually, accounting for 31% of all fatalities. Cardiovascular diseases are mainly caused by an unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity, tobacco consumption, and smoking. In addition, 80% of cardiovascular disease-related deaths are caused by heart attacks or strokes. Therefore, the market for ECMO machines would expand due to the global trend of rising cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.
Increasing Adoption Rate of ECMO Machines in Hospitals
Patients with chronic respiratory and cardiopulmonary conditions are treated with ECMO devices. The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) aims to raise awareness about COPD and its treatment, including using ECMO devices. It has many applications, including treating newborns, children, and adults. Extracorporeal life support (ECMO) is given to patients with severe cardiopulmonary conditions. Additionally, ECMO aids in cardiac output, oxygenation, and ventilation. The ECMO systems' advantages have increased their adoption rate in hospitals. In addition, modern ECMO machines are smaller in size, which increases their portability and utility. The development of portable adaptors and small ECMO machine circuits has also aided in the transportation of critically ill patients, which is expected to accelerate market growth over the coming years.
High Cost of Procedures
The use of ECMO is a treatment that comes at a high cost. In addition to the costs associated with the systems, additional expenses include hospital stays and disposable accessories. Also, during an ECMO procedure, the patient needs to be cared for by a team of doctors and nurses, which adds to the cost of the treatment but varies depending on how long it is used. The average hospital stays for a patient receiving ECMO support is between one and two weeks; however, depending on the severity of the illness, it can extend beyond this time frame. It raises the cost of the procedure, which most patients cannot afford. Advancements in ECMO technologies has led to an increase in the price of ECMO procedures, which may act as one of the factors restraining market growth over the forecast period.
Increasing Survival Rate with ECMO
The underlying condition of the patient and the patient's age both play a role in determining the survival rate of ECMO patients. VV-ECMO is recommended for patients who have respiratory failure that may be reversible. It also includes patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ADRS), primary graft dysfunction after a lung transplant, or lung trauma. Patients with respiratory failure have a better chance of surviving when treated with VV-ECMO. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) machines are also employed in cardiac applications due to their capacity to provide oxygenation functions to failing circulatory systems. The utilization of these systems for the treatment of cardiac failures results in improved patient survival rates. It is anticipated that an increase in the survival rates achieved with ECMO will present lucrative expansion opportunities for the ECMO market.
The global extracorporeal membrane oxygenation machine market is segmented by component, modality, and application.
Based on Components, the global market is bifurcated into pumps, oxygenators, controllers, cannulas, and other accessories.
The oxygenators segment is the highest contributor to the market and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 5.78% during the forecast period. Oxygenators' large market size is primarily attributable to their high price and high exchange rate with other systems. Mechanical failure, pump head thrombosis, and acute oxygenator thrombosis are the primary causes of oxygenator exchange rates. The membrane oxygenator is an external artificial lung. Oxygenators made of hollow-fiber Polymethyl Pentene (PMP) are now more commonly used because of their superior gas-exchange efficiency, low gas-leakage rate, and low blood-flow resistance. The increasing incidence of severe lung disease in children and growing awareness of ECMO's applications are major market drivers.
The pumps in ECMO machines assist in pumping blood from a patient to artificial lungs, which then return the oxygenated blood to the patient. There are three types of pumps: centrifugal, impeller, and roller. Multiple factors must be considered when selecting the type of infusion pump to use, including the hemolysis performance of the pump, its ease of setup, usability, and safety. The increasing prevalence of cardiopulmonary and respiratory diseases is driving the market's growth. The segment's growth is primarily attributable to the extensive use of pumps in ECMO procedures.
Based on Modality, the global market is bifurcated into veno-arterial, veno-venous, and arterio-venous.
The veno-arterial segment owns the highest market share and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 5.56% during the forecast period. The segment's largest size is primarily attributable to its widespread application in treating patients with cardiac arrest, where it assists algorithmic life support strategies to restore blood circulation. The veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuit is used to help algorithmic life support strategies in restoring blood circulation in cardiac arrest patients. Due to technological advancements, VA-ECMO is used to treat patients with pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension, especially in cases of acute decompensation. The configuration of VA-ECMO aids in pumping the patient's lungs, heart, and blood through the ECMO circuit. VA-ECMO can be used as a definitive treatment in the form of thrombectomy.
The veno-venous ECMO (VV ECMO) circuit's primary purpose is to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide more easily. It is mainly used when someone needs help with their lungs. VV-ECMO can also help people with graft dysfunction and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) who have had a lung transplant because it gives the lungs a break and makes oxygenation easier. The most important thing driving the market for ECMO machines is the growing number of people with COPD. But the biggest problem with using VV-ECMO is that oxygenated blood has to go through the machine again to get more oxygen.
Based on Application, the global market is bifurcated into respiratory, cardiac, and extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
The respiratory segment is the highest contributor to the market and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 5.48% during the forecast period. The main things driving the market are the rise in respiratory diseases and the growing awareness of ECMO procedures. Most of the time, ECMO systems are used to treat people with severe lung diseases like a respiratory failure. For instance, two vascular accesses are created in the case of respiratory failure, one through which blood is drained and transferred to the oxygenator via the major vein and the other through which oxygenated blood can enter the patient's body. ECMO treats breathing problems like respiratory failure, pulmonary hypertension, respiratory distress syndrome, meconium aspiration syndrome, and severe pneumonia, which shows its usefulness.
The extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) machine treats life-threatening cardiac conditions like cardiac shock or arrest. In addition, the rising price of ECMO procedures, particularly those performed during cardiac surgery, is anticipated to be a primary factor driving market growth. Bleeding, infection, air bubble formation in the tubing, infection, and an increased risk of stroke is the adverse effects of ECMO. According to research, the total direct medical costs associated with cardiovascular diseases are projected to reach USD 749 million by 2035.
The global extracorporeal membrane oxygenation machine market is bifurcated into five regions, namely North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East and Africa.
North America Dominates the Global Market
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North America is the most significant shareholder in the global extracorporeal membrane oxygenation machine market and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 5.08% during the forecast period. The government's support for high-quality healthcare, the region's high purchasing power parity, the availability of favorable reimbursement, and the rising incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the United States and Canada are all aspects contributing to its growth. Additionally, the prevalence of advanced healthcare facilities and favorable reimbursement policies, along with the rising incidences of various diseases like cardiopulmonary disease and respiratory disease, has increased the hospital admission rate, which is anticipated to boost the region's usage rates.
Europe is expected to grow at a CAGR of 4.78%, generating USD 105.04 million during the forecast period. Europe is one of the world's most developed territories. Increasing public and private spending on research and development, rising demand for medical devices, and a rise in chronic diseases like respiratory failure and cardiopulmonary diseases are some of the main reasons why this region's market share is growing. Apart from the factors mentioned above, favorable reimbursement policies, increased government investment in long-term healthcare, and a growing healthcare research infrastructure are all contributing to an increase in the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation machines. Significant players like Sorin Group have their headquarters in Europe.
China and Japan are major economic drivers in the Asia-Pacific region. The rising prevalence of chronic diseases such as cardiopulmonary diseases due to unhealthy eating habits, excessive tobacco consumption, and increased awareness of ECMO has resulted in a rise in hospital use. The Asia Pacific region has a large population base with low per capita income, resulting in high demand for affordable treatment options. Multinational corporations are keen to invest in developing countries such as China, India, and Japan. It is expected to boost the market further over the forecast period. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) initiatives in the medical devices and healthcare sector by governments and private organizations are anticipated to provide incentives for producing technologically advanced ECMO systems, such as the ECMO system integrated with a hollow fiber oxygenator.
Brazil mainly drives the economy of Latin America. The market is expected to grow because people are becoming more aware of health issues and want more technologically advanced medical devices for long-term care. Moreover, increasing private and government investment in R&D in healthcare, the rising prevalence of chronic disorders such as respiratory failure, and favorable reimbursement policies on medical devices are some of the factors that are expected to drive the demand for technologically advanced equipment for long-term care, thereby boosting the utilization rate of ECMO systems in hospitals over the forecast period.
The economies of Middle Eastern nations, such as Saudi Arabia, are thriving and expanding rapidly. Primarily responsible for the growth of the ECMO market may be the expanding health insurance penetration, increasing privatization, and regional disease burden. It is anticipated that the advancements in the healthcare system will increase the demand for ECMO in this region. Given the region's diverse socioeconomic and political conditions, companies in the healthcare R&D industry can find opportunities in the Middle East.