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Internal Combustion Engine Market

Global Internal Combustion Engine Market: Information By Fuel Type (Petroleum, Natural Gas), By End-Use (Automotive, Marine, Aircraft), and By Region (North America, Europe, APAC, Middle East and Africa, LATAM)- Forecast Till 2032

Report Code: SRAT55616DR
Study Period 2020-2032 CAGR 5.2%
Historical Period 2020-2022 Forecast Period 2024-2032
Base Year 2023 Base Year Market Size USD 179,459.4 Thousand Units
Forecast Year 2032 Forecast Year Market Size USD 283,208.0 Thousand Units
Largest Market North America Fastest Growing Market Europe
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Market Overview

The global internal combustion engine market size was valued at USD 179,459.4 thousand units in 2023 and is projected to reach a value of USD 283,208.0 thousand units by 2032, registering a CAGR of 5.2% during the forecast period (2024-2032). The market has grown tremendously and is likely to expand, owing to increased demand for passenger and commercial cars in established and emerging countries.

The internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine that produces mechanical power by burning fuel in a combustion chamber. It works on the principle of converting the chemical energy contained in the fuel into mechanical energy via combustion. ICEs are widely used in various applications, including automobiles, ships, planes, power generators, and industrial machinery. An internal combustion engine consists of several key components, including cylinders, pistons, combustion chambers, intake and exhaust valves, crankshaft, and camshafts.

Despite rising trends toward electric vehicles (EVs), internal combustion engines remain dominant due to their established supply chains, extensive infrastructure, and the current economic scale of petroleum-based fuels. The market's longevity is also aided by ongoing advances in engine technology, which aim to improve fuel efficiency and lower emissions. Such advances are crucial as worldwide regulatory pressure to reduce environmental effects grows. Looking ahead, the ICE market is expected to undergo a dynamic transition. While the rise of electric vehicles and stricter emission rules may dampen development prospects, there is significant ongoing demand in emerging nations where electric infrastructure is still in its early stages. Furthermore, developing hybrid technologies that mix ICEs and electric motors represents a transitional opportunity with the potential to extend the significance of internal combustion engines in the automobile sector.

Top 2 Key Highlights

  • Petroleum influenced the market by fuel type.
  • Automotive topped the market by application.

Market Dynamics

Market Drivers

Rising Consumer Disposable Income and High Adoption in Developing Economies

Rising consumer disposable income is expected to drive the global internal combustion engine market in the coming years. Internal combustion engine prices will remain low for the foreseeable future, increasing demand. Car-buying consumers are expected to increase the demand for goods. Internal combustion engines will also benefit from strong economic growth in Asia and Latin America. Customers prefer reliable, high-performance products. This should boost the use of internal combustion engines in the coming years. Product demand is also expected to increase as internal combustion engine car fuel efficiency standards improve.

In addition, rising disposable incomes have driven robust growth in India's automotive market. According to the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM), Passenger Vehicles experienced 12% growth and sold more than 1.1 million units. Three-wheelers sold 1.65 lakh units, up 7%. Commercial Vehicles saw a 4% decrease in sales, with more than 2.68 lakh units sold." Further, In 2023, India's per capita NNI was approximately 170,000 rupees, up 13.7% from the previous year. Between 2014-15 and 2022-23, India's per capita NNI increased by 35.12% at constant 2011-12 prices. Rising disposable incomes in India, China, Brazil, and Indonesia have increased demand for automobiles, motorcycles, and other consumer goods powered by internal combustion engines.

Furthermore, developing economies rely heavily on internal combustion engines for transportation, power generation, agriculture, and industrial applications because of their low cost and well-established infrastructure. The demand for internal combustion engines in developing countries is driven by the need for dependable and affordable transportation, particularly in rural and remote areas where alternative modes of transportation are limited.

Market Restraints

Shift Toward Electric Powered Vehicle

The growing awareness of environmental issues, combined with advancements in electric vehicle technology, has resulted in a significant shift away from traditional internal combustion engines. Governments worldwide are enacting policies to encourage the use of electric vehicles, such as subsidies, tax breaks, and stricter emissions regulations, accelerating the transition. Tesla, Inc., led by Elon Musk, is at the forefront of the electric vehicle revolution. The company's success with models such as the Model S, Model 3, and Model X has disrupted the automotive industry and questioned the dominance of internal combustion engines. The Tesla Model Y was the best-selling electric vehicle (EV) in 2023, with 1,211,601 registrations, making it the best model.

According to the IEA's Global EV Outlook 2024, nearly 14 million electric vehicles were sold worldwide in 2023, representing a 35% increase over 2022. This accounts for 18% of all car sales globally. Several countries, including Norway, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom, have announced plans to phase out the sale of new internal combustion engine vehicles by 2030 or earlier, accelerating the adoption of electric vehicles.

Moreover, the growing popularity of electric vehicles threatens the long-term demand for internal combustion engine vehicles, particularly in the passenger car segment. Automotive manufacturers are shifting their investments to electric vehicle development, potentially reducing funding for internal combustion engine technologies. Furthermore, the transition to electric vehicles affects the entire automotive supply chain, including component suppliers, fuel providers, and aftermarket services, causing disruptions and restructuring the industry.

Market Opportunity

Hybrid Powertrains and Performance and Specialized Vehicles

Hybrid vehicles, which combine an internal combustion engine and electric power, have become popular as a step toward full electrification. For ICE manufacturers, developing hybrid powertrains provides opportunities to improve efficiency, reduce emissions, and extend vehicle range. These advancements may close the gap between traditional ICE vehicles and electric vehicles.

In 2023, global hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) sales increased by more than 50% to 1,175,597 units, doubling the number sold in 2020 and nearly tripling in 2019. This represented a 44% increase from 2022, when 133,184 hybrid passenger vehicles were sold. In comparison, petrol car sales increased by only 6% in 2023. Dual-fuel systems allow you to use cleaner-burning fuels like natural gas alongside traditional diesel or gasoline, resulting in emissions reductions and cost savings. Furthermore, hybridization and dual-fuel systems enable internal combustion engines to improve efficiency, reduce emissions, and adapt to changing market demands. Internal combustion engines can meet regulatory requirements, satisfy consumer preferences, and remain competitive in the evolving automotive and industrial sectors by incorporating electric propulsion systems or alternative fuels.

Regional Analysis

The global internal combustion engine market analysis is conducted in North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, the Middle East and Africa, and Latin America.

North America is the largest global internal combustion engine market shareholder and is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 5.0% over the forecast period. The automotive industries in the United States and Canada are well-established, and there is a sizable market for ICE-powered automobiles. Trucks, SUVs, and high-performance cars continue to be popular in this area despite the growing interest in EVs, which fuels the demand for ICE engines. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements and other strict emission rules have prompted the development of cleaner and more effective ICE engines. To lessen the adverse effects of ICE vehicles on the environment, there is also a focus on alternative fuels like biofuels. However, Electric vehicle (EV) sales in the United States are expected to rise in 2024, making it the best year ever for EV sales. Analysts predict that EV sales will account for approximately 10% of the market by the end of the year, up from 7.3% in the first quarter. The IEA also predicts a 20% increase in EV sales in 2024 compared to 2023, representing nearly half a million more sales. This growth may impact the market during the forecast period.

Europe is anticipated to exhibit a CAGR of 4.8% over the forecast period. Strict Euro criteria have pushed for adopting cleaner, more effective ICE engines, placing Europe at the forefront of pollution laws. The sale of new gasoline and diesel automobiles will be prohibited in some European nations in the coming years, affecting the long-term demand for ICE engines. As a step toward complete electrification, there is still a sizable market for hybrid cars and cutting-edge ICE technologies. Germany, France, and Italy dominate the European automotive market, emphasizing performance cars and luxury brands.

Asia-Pacific has emerged as one of the fastest-growing regions in the global market. The demand for ICE vehicles is driven by nations like China, Japan, and India, which together make up the largest automotive market in the world. ICE vehicles continue to rule the market despite increasing EV usage due to price and a lack of charging infrastructure. The government has enacted pollution limits and fuel efficiency requirements in China, the world's largest auto market, to promote the development of cleaner ICE engines that use less fuel. India presents prospects for ICE cars, notably in the commercial vehicle category, because of its expanding economy and infrastructure.

In the Middle East, Africa, and Latin America (LAMEA), the market for ICE-powered vehicles is sizable, particularly in nations like Brazil and Mexico. The region's propensity for ICE vehicles is influenced by economic issues, a lack of charging infrastructure, and price. However, alternative fuels like ethanol and flex-fuel vehicles are gaining popularity and offer prospects for ICE engine producers. The Middle East is a significant market for high-end and sporty vehicles, which frequently use ICE engines. The demand for ICE automobiles is supported by the region's oil-rich economies' relatively low fuel costs. Due to a lack of infrastructure for charging and financial limitations, ICE vehicles are more common in Africa.

Report Scope

Report Metric Details
By Fuel Type
  1. Petroleum
  2. Natural Gas
By End-Use
  1. Automotive
  2. Marine 
  3. Aircraft
Company Profiles Ford AB Nissan Motor Company AG Volkswagen Royce Holding Plc Mahindra and Mahindra Ltd. Nissan SA Tokyo Heavy Industries MAN SE Company General Motors Automaker Ford Dodge Chrysler Bosch Robert GmbH Corporation AGCO Corporation Caterpillar Limited Shanghai Diesel Engine
Geographies Covered
North America U.S. Canada
Europe U.K. Germany France Spain Italy Russia Nordic Benelux Rest of Europe
APAC China Korea Japan India Australia Singapore Taiwan South East Asia Rest of Asia-Pacific
Middle East and Africa UAE Turkey Saudi Arabia South Africa Egypt Nigeria Rest of MEA
LATAM Brazil Mexico Argentina Chile Colombia Rest of LATAM
Report Coverage Revenue Forecast, Competitive Landscape, Growth Factors, Environment & Regulatory Landscape and Trends
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Segmental Analysis

The global internal combustion engine market is segmented based on fuel type and end-use.

The market is further segmented by fuel type into Petroleum, Natural Gas. The petroleum segment dominates the global market and is projected to exhibit a CAGR of 5.2% over the forecast period. Since petroleum-based fuels like gasoline and diesel are the primary energy sources for internal combustion engines (ICEs), the market for these devices is firmly entwined with the petroleum sector. Petroleum fuels are heavily utilized in the ICE market for power production and combustion. Diesel fuels trucks, buses, and large machines, whereas gasoline is primarily used in passenger cars.

Additionally, the number of ICE vehicles on the road and fuel consumption directly affect the demand for petroleum-based fuels. The expansion or development of the ICE market impacts the demand for petroleum products. The move to electric vehicles (EVs) and the general decline in petroleum use in the transportation sector may affect the long-term prospects of the petroleum industry and its connection to the ICE market. However, it's anticipated that ICE vehicles will continue to be used for several decades, particularly in some vehicle categories and geographical areas where EV adoption is slower. Therefore, the petroleum industry will continue to meet the demand for ICE engines and fuels in the short- to mid-term.

Natural gas is a clean-burning fossil fuel primarily composed of methane extracted from underground reserves using drilling and extraction methods. It is an important fuel source for internal combustion engines, especially in applications where emissions reduction and fuel cost savings are critical. Natural gas engines can run on compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG), resulting in lower emissions of pollutants like nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter than petroleum-based fuels. The abundance of natural gas reserves and advancements in extraction technologies have made it an appealing alternative fuel for transportation, power generation, and industrial use. However, infrastructure development, fuel storage, and methane emissions management must be addressed to achieve widespread adoption and sustainability.

The market can be bifurcated into Automotive, Marine, and Aircraft by end-use. The automotive segment is the most significant contributor to the market and is estimated to exhibit a CAGR of 5.4% over the forecast period. This growth is related to rising consumer disposable income, leading to a rise in global automobile usage. Internal combustion engines with significant returns on manufacturing investments are the primary focus of vehicle manufacturers. Furthermore, the market is anticipated to rise during the forecast period due to technical developments that improve IC engine fuel efficiency, emissions, and performance. However, challenges such as emissions regulations, fuel efficiency standards, and the transition to electric vehicles have significant implications for the future of internal combustion engines in the automotive industry.

The aircraft segment is expected to grow significantly over the forecast period. The aircraft industry includes planes, helicopters, drones, and other aerial vehicles for passenger and cargo transportation, military operations, and recreation. Aircraft propulsion systems are powered by internal combustion engines, which use aviation gasoline (avgas) or jet fuel to provide thrust. Aircraft engines are designed, manufactured, and operated by stringent regulatory standards to ensure high performance, reliability, and safety. Furthermore, this segment is primarily driven by the commercial aviation industry's favorable market conditions. Aircraft for tourism, logistics, and defense require a high-performance ICE with more torque. This internal combustion engine application in various industries is expected to drive market growth. Furthermore, technological advancements such as multi-fuel capability, which improves fuel mileage, will increase demand in the segment.

Market Size By Fuel Type

Market Size By Fuel Type
  • Petroleum
  • Natural Gas
  • Recent Developments

    Key Players

    Internal Combustion Engine Market Share of Key Players

    Internal Combustion Engine Market Share of Key Players
    Ford AB Nissan Motor Company AG Volkswagen Royce Holding Plc Mahindra and Mahindra Ltd. Nissan SA Tokyo Heavy Industries MAN SE Company General Motors Automaker Ford Dodge Chrysler Bosch Robert GmbH Corporation AGCO Corporation Caterpillar Limited Shanghai Diesel Engine Others

    Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    What is the growth rate of the internal combustion engine market?
    The global internal combustion engine market size was valued at USD 179,459.4 thousand units in 2023, registering a CAGR of 5.2% (2024-2032).
    Top 4 key players in the market include Ford AB, Nissan Motor Company, AG Volkswagen, and Mahindra and Mahindra Ltd.
    North America is the most significant global motorcycle helmet market shareholder and is estimated to exhibit a CAGR of 5% over the forecast period.
    The shift toward electric-powered vehicles and the increasing focus on environmental sustainability pose challenges to the growth of the internal combustion engine market.
    The market is segmented by fuel type (petroleum, natural gas) and end-use (automotive, marine, aircraft).

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