The global residential battery market was valued at USD 12.97 billion in 2022. It is estimated to reach USD 53.53 billion by 2031, growing at a CAGR of 17.06% during the forecast period (2023–2031).
A residential battery is an energy storage device installed within a home and used to store electricity from the grid or energy produced by renewable resources like solar and wind. They mostly consist of lead-acid or lithium-ion (Li-ion) components to handle charging and discharging cycles efficiently. They comprise a cathode, anode, electrolyte, and separator. Smart meters employ residential batteries, which are helpful in rural locations without a reliable grid connection. They have a short charge time and are reliable, affordable, secure, lightweight, and stable.
Residential batteries also minimize carbon footprint, lower electricity prices, increase power consumption, and maintain the electrical system's dependability. Batteries are among the most dominant and preferred forms of residential energy storage systems. The residential usage of battery energy storage systems (BESS) is gaining importance because of the need to offset power blackouts due to the lack of proper power grid infrastructure. For uninterrupted power supply at houses during power outages during peak times, energy storage systems are employed, notably in non-OECD nations.
|Market Size||USD 53.53 billion by 2031|
|Fastest Growing Market||South America|
|Report Coverage||Revenue Forecast, Competitive Landscape, Growth Factors, Environment & Regulatory Landscape and Trends|
The cost of lithium-ion batteries has fallen significantly over the past ten years. A lithium-ion battery was estimated to cost around USD 123 per kWh in 2021. Throughout the previous few years, the price has been steadily declining; compared to 2010, the price dropped by more than 85% in 2021. The two key reasons for the drastic cost decline are the steady improvement of battery performance and the increase in production volume, particularly in China. In addition, battery manufacturers across Asia-Pacific, particularly in China, have lower prices than the average prices. Low labor costs are a primary reason for the lower prices in China.
Furthermore, the decline in the average price of lithium-ion batteries is expected to continue and reach approximately USD 82/kWh by 2025, making the Li-ion battery market much more cost-competitive than other battery technologies across the residential sector. The trend is expected to increase the use of lithium-ion batteries in markets, such as residential energy storage systems (RESS), paired with renewables, like solar photovoltaic, during the forecast period.
As renewable energy technologies like solar gain prominence, there will likely be more possibilities for battery energy storage. Lithium-ion batteries are now preferred because of their high energy density, high output voltage, and low self-discharge rate. New lithium-sulfur batteries, however, have a 2600 Wh/kg higher energy density and a 2-volt open circuit voltage than conventional lithium-ion batteries. The lithium-sulfur battery is composed of a lithium-negative pole and a sulfur-positive pole.
Lithium's negative pole disintegrates into the electrolyte during discharge, and lithium ions go to the positive pole of sulfur to create polysulfide ions (Li2Sx). The lithium-ion moves to its negative pole as the polysulfide ion breaks down while being charged. Polysulfide ions gradually lose some of their solubility. As the reaction nears completion, Li2S2 and Li2S separate from the solution and create a solid residue that lowers the mobility of the positive pole sulfur and the battery's capacity. In September 2021, a business named Lyten presented the next-generation lithium-sulfur battery. These developments should boost market growth.
Lead-acid residential batteries raise various environmental issues. Lead is released during lead-acid battery disposal and is regarded as hazardous waste for the environment and human health. The human kidney, brain, and hearing may all suffer if such batteries are not disposed of appropriately. Smelting is a step in recycling lead-acid batteries with a significant energy requirement due to their high working temperatures. In addition, using carbon as fuel causes the production of CO2. Lead smelting has a relatively significant potential for global warming due to the high energy requirement and CO2 emission. Therefore, such an issue with lead-acid batteries will likely lead to market contraction of lead-acid batteries for residential applications during the forecast period.
Rooftop solar is regarded as one of the greatest solutions because metropolitan areas lack land and must fulfill the rising electricity demand. Battery storage is a vital part of the rooftop solar PV power generation process because solar energy is intermittent and unavailable at night. The BESS saves the electricity produced by the solar panels on the roof until it is needed for self-consumption.
Additionally, the growing use of rooftop solar and related battery storage systems has been significantly influenced by government programs, including subsidies and tax credits, from many governments, including those of China, India, the United States, and other nations. For instance, in November 2020, the Government of Greece launched an energy efficiency program to support rooftop PV and residential storage. In addition, technological advancements, cost reduction across the manufacturing value chain, and improvement in economies of scale helped to reduce the cost of solar modules, which resulted in increasing rooftop solar deployment, driving the demand for residential batteries. Such factors create opportunities for market growth.
Asia-Pacific Dominates the Global Market
Based on region, the global residential battery market is bifurcated into North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East and Africa.
Asia-Pacific is the most significant global residential battery market shareholder and is expected to exhibit a CAGR of 18.91% over the forecast period. Abundant natural and human resources support several developing economies in Asia-Pacific. India and China are the two regions that provide the most to the region's revenue, which makes up the majority of it. These nations are expected to demonstrate tremendous growth potential over the forecast period. The Chinese market is anticipated to expand throughout the forecast period due to regulatory and policy support from the government. With subsidies and installation goals, the Chinese government has already demonstrated its capacity to catalyze a rapid increase in domestic demand for solar-related technology. In addition, residential rooftop solar capacity in China grew by 7.41 GW in the first nine months of 2020 and by another 64.61% in the following year. In September 2021, the nation's residential rooftop solar capacity increased by 2.14 GW.
Furthermore, India, which ranks fifth in the world in terms of installed capacity with 393.83 GW as of December 2021, is another significant nation in the area. India, however, has power disruptions. The government of India sought to enhance the capacity of renewable energy generation, including rooftop solar power, to provide electricity around-the-clock, which is expected to raise the need for residential batteries.
Europe is estimated to exhibit a CAGR of 17.12% over the forecast period. Germany is among the largest markets for residential energy storage in Europe and across the globe. Due to the nation's ambitious energy transition initiatives and goal of lowering greenhouse gas emissions by at least 80% (relative to 1990 levels) up until 2050, the market for energy storage has seen a considerable uptick recently. The country also plans to phase out nuclear power plants by 2023, which is expected to increase renewable energy development to compensate for the reduced power-producing capacity. According to Germany Energy Storage Association, at the end of 2020, residential energy storage systems capacity was approximately 831 MW. Approximately 70% of residential solar PV systems are installed with battery storage systems, with an average capacity of 8.5kWh, slightly more than the average 8kWh in 2019. In 2020, according to the German Solar Industry Association (BSW-Solar), approximately 88,000 new residential storage systems were installed in Germany. Overall, battery storage systems increased to around 272,000 by December 2020. Furthermore, in 2019 and 2018, the country installed 60,000 and 40,000 residential batteries, respectively, and the demand for residential batteries increased by approximately 47% in 2020, thereby driving regional market growth.
The North American region includes the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. The U.S. is the largest market contributor in the region. As expenditures in renewable energy infrastructure have increased nationwide in recent years, battery systems have seen tremendous development in the United States, particularly in the residential market. Household energy consumption is predicted to increase during the forecast period due to rising annual discretionary spending and the growing work-from-home trend across the United States. The residential battery energy storage market is also expected to grow due to ongoing technological developments in energy storage, causing battery prices to fall and the widespread adoption of small-scale renewable energy sources.
In addition, due to favorable incentive programs, such as the Solar Renewable Energy Credits (SREC) introduced by the Government of New Jersey and the declining cost of solar panels, the residential sector is predicted to experience significant growth due to emerging markets with strong resource fundamentals, like New Jersey. Homeowners should be able to reduce their electricity costs due to the shifting trend toward solar energy. This will likely boost the deployment of the country's residential battery energy storage systems during the forecast period.
In South America, the market is growing considerably. Residential batteries in Brazil are used in residential appliances, such as remote controls of TVs and ACs, laptops, mobile phones, home inverters, and UPS of personal computers. The individuals in the country have high disposable incomes to spend on things mentioned above that use different types of batteries for their functioning. Moreover, the increasing number of internet and smartphone users in the country is expected to raise the demand for residential battery demand during the forecast period. Similarly, Argentina is the fourth top producer of lithium globally. Local governments are looking to speed up the development by reducing red tape, rampant inflation, taxes, and currency controls, directly aiding the residential battery market.
The global fencing market is bifurcated into type.
Based on type, the global residential battery market is bifurcated into lithium-ion batteries, lead-acid batteries, and other types.
The lithium-ion battery segment owns the highest market share and is predicted to exhibit a CAGR of 17.70% over the forecast period. Compared to prior technologies, such as lead-acid batteries, lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have several technical advantages. Compared to lead acid batteries, which have a 400–500 cycles lifespan, rechargeable Li-ion batteries offer cycles more than 5,000 times on average. In addition, compared to lead acid batteries, Li-ion batteries require less regular maintenance and replacement. Unlike lead acid batteries, which consistently lose voltage during the discharge cycle, lithium-ion batteries maintain their voltage, enabling electrical components to operate more effectively and for longer periods. The true cost of Li-ion batteries is far lower than that of lead-acid batteries, although their initial cost is higher. In addition, the adoption of Li-ion batteries has been increasing, primarily due to their property of being the most energetic rechargeable batteries available. Likewise, Li-ion batteries are increasing, replacing conventional batteries due to their techno-economic benefits.
Lead acid batteries are particularly helpful for SLI (Starting Lighting Ignition) applications because while having a low energy-to-weight ratio, they can deliver large surge currents, indicating a high power-to-weight ratio. Lead-acid batteries are also favored because of their low cost when the cost takes precedence over the energy-to-weight ratio, such as in backup supplies for cell phone towers, hospitals, and off-grid remote storage. Lead acid batteries in automotive applications contribute more than 60% of the market. In addition, the major application for lead-acid batteries in the residential sector is battery energy storage systems. Lead-acid batteries are the preferred option for conventional battery inverter systems. Lead-acid batteries are the most economical for residential battery-based systems because they are cheap. Flood lead-acid batteries are the most cost-effective option when evaluating cost, capacity, and product cycle life. On the other hand, AGM & GEL VRLA options are also available to offer solutions where a sealed maintenance-free product is required.
The other segment includes batteries, such as nickel-cadmium, nickel-iron, nickel–metal hydride, sodium nickel chloride, sodium sulfur batteries, and flow batteries, among others. Until the 1990s, nickel-cadmium batteries (NiCd) were the widely used rechargeable batteries in household sizes. Still, their capacity was low and contained toxic cadmium; hence, these batteries should be disposed of as hazardous waste. After NiMH battery entered the battery market with triple capacity and non-hazardous materials, and at about the same price, the market share of NiCd was drastically reduced. The nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) battery was first introduced around 1989; since then, the battery technology has shown a nearly 170% increase in energy density compared to NiCD batteries. These batteries are one of the advanced commercially available secondary batteries. In addition, it is environmental-friendly when compared to nickel-cadmium batteries (NiCD). The alkaline batteries use alkaline electrolytes, with zinc and manganese dioxide as electrodes. These batteries submerge the electrodes in a potassium- or sodium-based alkaline electrolyte. Alkaline batteries are of two types, which include rechargeable and non-rechargeable battery types.