The global sodium sulfur battery market size was valued at USD 100.61 million in 2021 and is expected to reach USD 947.72 million in 2030 growing at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 28.3% from 2022 to 2030.
Multiple cylindrical cells are used in the construction of sodium sulphur batteries. The entire cell is shielded from the effects of internal corrosion by a chromium and molybdenum-lined steel shell that surrounds it. Sodium sulphur reactants have an operating temperature of around 300 degrees Celsius and a density output of more than 200-watt hours per pound or 400-watt hours per kilogramme.
The longevity and operating efficiency of sodium sulphur batteries may be significantly improved by the addition of electrodes, which also makes the batteries more powerful. Despite this, these batteries can catch fire and pose a danger if they come into touch with either air or moisture.
Electrolytes are important because they allow ions to move freely between the anode and the cathode. There is a direct correlation between the electrolyte that is used and the performance of the RT-Na/S battery. In most cases, a solid-state electrolyte is recommended rather than a liquid one since it reduces polysulfide dissolution as well as the shuttle phenomenon. The use of solid electrolytes, on the other hand, is troublesome due to the interfacial instability of the solid electrolytes and the restricted ionic conductivity of the solid electrolytes. More attention has to be paid to the fact that extreme solubility of intermediate polysulfides in liquid electrolytes is an important factor. It is necessary to do research on several different electrolytes in order to determine which electrolyte composition provides the highest electrochemical performance for RT-Na/S batteries. While separators continue to permit ion transport in the electrolyte, they can physically impede electrical contact between the cathode and the anode. In addition, partitions need to have a high level of mechanical strength in addition to flexibility.
The sodium sulphur battery is a popular design for the creation of practical batteries because it enables for the volume of the electrodes to fluctuate during cycling while simultaneously decreasing the area that has to be sealed. It illustrates a tubular sodium sulphur battery with a sodium electrode located in the core of the battery. The tubular design, in which the sodium is encased within the electrolyte tube, is the geometry that favours the central placement of sodium. Sodium sulphur batteries may be constructed using a variety of different designs, including the main sodium design, the centre sulphur geometry, and the planar design. The sodium sulphur battery is powered by the electrochemical process that takes place when sodium and sulphur are combined. This reaction leads in the formation of sodium polysulfide.
The high risk of exposure and the expensive expenses of implementation are both putting a damper on the expansion of the sector. Customers' lack of understanding is another factor that makes the industry more difficult to navigate. Potential market possibilities include the mechanisation of inspection and testing procedures, the industrialization of economies that are still in the process of developing, and the provision of individualised solutions for problems that are caused by risks of exposure. By adding electrodes, the lifespan of sodium-sulfur batteries as well as their operating efficiency may be significantly increased. However, if these batteries meet either air or moisture, they become combustible and deadly.
Applications for energy storage systems (ESS) may be found at a variety of scales and phases, such as power generation, utility-scale, grid, and behind-the-meter use. Batteries find uses in industries ranging from commercial to domestic to utility-scale operations. In addition, energy storage batteries are utilised in the production of electric cars in addition to a variety of electronic products such as cellphones, laptops, and portable electronic gadgets. The ESS is applicable to every facet of life. Demand would rise for storage for energy losses, especially for portable batteries. The total electrical capacity (utility and non-utility) has expanded to around 448.11 gigawatts by the end of March 2020, having increased from 1362 megawatts in 1947. The average amount of electricity used by a person has climbed from 16.3 kilowatt-hours in 1947 to 1208.0 kilowatt-hours in 2019-20.
The global sodium sulfur battery market is segmented by product, application, and region.
The market may be broken down into several categories depending on the application, including supplementary services, load levelling, renewable energy stability, and others. In 2019, the segment of the market devoted to Other Applications held the greatest share, 33.0%. Between the years 2020 and 2027, it is anticipated that the auxiliary services application category would have a compound annual growth rate of 30.6%. It is necessary to have auxiliary service in order to keep the transmission of energy on the grid areas dependable, secure, and safe. It is anticipated that the load levelling application sector would emerge as the segment with the highest rate of growth over the course of the projected period.
It is anticipated that the market for renewable energy stabilisation would experience significant development in the years to come. As a kind of energy storage battery, sodium sulphur batteries are typically utilised to assist the creation of renewable energy, particularly in solar power plants and wind farms. The battery energy storage system has a considerable impact on the rate at which rapid decarbonization may be achieved for the purposes of energy consumption. Battery energy storage systems support stability services to various mini-grids, facilitate an increase in the potential share of variable renewable sources of energy in such grid areas, and improve power quality. These benefits are made possible by increasing the potential share of variable renewable sources of energy.
The market for batteries may be divided into two categories—private portable batteries and industrial batteries—according to the product. Because sodium sulphur batteries offer high-energy density solutions, there is a rising demand for them in industrial and grid storage settings. As a result, the industrial product sector accounted for 81.8% of the total sales in 2019. Because of this, the demand for sodium sulphur batteries across all of the many industrial sectors is projected to increase as the requirement for storage and power backup becomes more pressing.
From 2020 to 2027, the private portable product category would expand at a compound annual growth rate of 28.3%. Because NaS batteries have lower maintenance requirements and better energy densities than other types of batteries, it is anticipated that their use in portable electronic devices will increase at a substantial rate in the coming years. There would be a high demand for consumer electronics, which will accelerate the expansion of the category.
In 2019, the Asia Pacific region was responsible for the biggest revenue share at 68.27%, and it is anticipated that this region would have considerable increase throughout the projected period. The growing desire for electrification in rural regions, together with rising investments in expanding power generation capacity, will fuel the demand for storage batteries across the Asia Pacific region, leading to an increased demand for sodium sulphur batteries.
With more than 170 MW of installed capacity for sodium sulphur batteries by 2018, Japan leads the world in the adoption of these batteries. The region's major economies have been undergoing sustained modernization, which has resulted in an increased emphasis on grid stability and reliable power generation. As a direct consequence of this, sodium sulphur batteries are progressively finding their way into use to supply auxiliary services while also ensuring accurate frequency management. The expansion of infrastructure for renewable energy sources will contribute significantly to the reduction of carbon footprints, which in turn will further stimulate market expansion.
As a result of rising demand for NaS batteries, Europe is projected to experience significant growth in the years to come. It is anticipated that technological developments in terms of cost-effectiveness, better efficiency, and product innovation would contribute to the expansion of the regional market. It is anticipated that stringent emission requirements implemented by the governments of major nations such as the United Kingdom and the United States, in conjunction with increased focus toward fuel efficiency, will boost the market.
List of key sodium sulfur battery market manufacturers profiled
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