The global TMJ disorders market size was valued at USD 540 million in 2022. It is estimated to reach USD 794 million by 2031, growing at a CAGR of 4.38% during the forecast period (2023–2031).
Temporomandibular disorders, or TMD, are a group of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular conditions that affect the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the muscles and bones around it. TMJ disorders are commonly known as temporomandibular joint and muscle disorders. The jaw joint and the muscles controlling jaw movement become dysfunctional and painful due to this medical disease. Further, TMJ disorders classification can be done into articular disorders and masticatory muscle disorders. According to the American Family Physician (AFP), TMD affects up to 15% of individuals, peaking between the ages of 20 and 40. Jaw discomfort or dysfunction, earaches, headaches, and facial pain are typical symptoms.
According to the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research in 2018, the prevalence of TMJ disorders is between 5% and 12%, reportedly higher among youngsters. The second-most frequent musculoskeletal problems that cause pain and disability are TMJ disorders. The prevalence of TMJ disorders is higher in women than in men, peaking between the ages of 20 and 40. Additionally, women who use oral contraceptives or extra estrogen are more likely to seek medical attention for these issues. Therefore, the rising prevalence of these disorders in these populations propels the market growth.
In addition, several research studies focused on studying the prevalence of TMJ disorders are anticipated to drive market growth. For instance, a prevalence study was conducted in 2016 among university students in North Saudi Arabia, which reported a high prevalence rate among these students. Clicking and pain were the most prevalent TMJ disorder symptoms, with females having more of these symptoms. The habits, especially digit-sucking, nail-biting, mouth breathing, and clenching, had statistically significantly associated with TMD. Such research studies are also fueling the market growth of TMJ disorders.
Technology has played an essential role in TMJ disorders, another key contributing factor to market growth. Moreover, the emergence of non-surgical and surgical treatment methods for TMJ disorders has further propelled market growth. A study published in PubMed in 2016 describes the advancements in tissue engineering for treating TMJ disorders. Tissue engineering approaches have emerged as promising treatment options for musculoskeletal disorders. In addition, in February 2020, AIIMS introduced a new patient-specific artificial jaw-joint replacement with the help of 3D printing technology. Such an approach in favor of TMJ disorders is driving the market growth.
According to the Journal of Dental Research and Review in 2018, it has been estimated that 25% of the general population suffers from TMJ-related symptoms, and only 2% of them seek treatment. Most individuals ignore jaw pain because it is expected, which is also a limiting factor for market growth. In addition, the etiology of TMJ disorder and its understanding is significant in identifying and avoiding potential pathologic factors. Etiopathogenesis of this condition is poorly understood, which makes the TMJ disorders challenging to diagnose and manage, thereby restraining the market growth.
There is a rising demand for non-invasive treatment modality that includes pharmacotherapy, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), antidepressants, benzodiazepines, muscle relaxants, and anticonvulsants. According to a TMJ disorders article published in the Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons in 2018, among these therapies, NSAIDS and benzodiazepines are primarily used for the pharmacologic treatment of TMJ disorders having high demand. Pain relief through NSAIDs might result from the reduction of peripheral sensitization by decreasing the fatigue, overload, and release of inflammatory components in masticatory muscles and the TMJ. Increasing demand for these non-invasive treatment modalities will provide a lucrative opportunity for drug manufacturers and aid market growth.
The global TMJ disorders market is segmented by type, treatment, and end-user.
Based on type, the global TMJ disorders market is divided into myofascial pain, internal derangement (ID), and osteoarthritis.
The myofascial pain segment is responsible for the largest market share and is anticipated to grow at a CAGR of 4.15% over the forecast period. Myofascial pain syndrome is caused by muscle tension, fatigue, or spasm in the masticatory muscles. The research article published by BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders states that the prevalence of myofascial pain is up to 85% of the general population worldwide, fueling the growth of the myofascial pain segment. In addition, conservative treatments for myofascial pain, including analgesics, muscle relaxation, modification of parafunctional behavior, and oral appliances, are commonly used. Key players also offer advanced medical devices to treat myofascial pain syndrome, helping them expand their product portfolio. For instance, MJ Health is offering FDA approved TMJ NextGeneration Device to alleviate temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD) pain.
Osteoarthritis (OA) of the TMJ is a unilateral, degenerative disease of the jaw joint. In addition to pain and dysfunction in the jaw's functional movements, it is characterized by the breakdown of the articular cartilage, structural alterations in the bone, and degeneration of the synovial tissues. TMJ affects more than 17% of adults and children with rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis (OA) of the temporomandibular joint is difficult to diagnose with conventional radiographs in the early lesions due to its limitations. However, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) can diagnose the early degenerative changes of TMJ and aid in diagnosing the lesions more accurately.
Based on treatment, the global TMJ disorders market is segmented into medication, therapies, surgical, and others.
The medication segment owns the highest market share and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 4.46% over the forecast period. Along with other nonsurgical treatments, medication options help relieve the pain associated with TMJ disorders. Pain relievers and anti-inflammatories are commonly used medications that help to relieve pain. Ibuprofen, Piroxicam, and Feldene are some widely used pain relievers and anti-inflammatory OTC and non-OTC drugs. Tricyclic antidepressants, such as amitriptyline, are used primarily for depression. They are sometimes used for pain relief, bruxism control, and sleeplessness. Muscle relaxants are used for a few days or weeks to ease the pain brought on by muscle spasms.
The therapies segment includes nondrug management for TMJ disorders, oral splints or mouthguards, physical therapy, and counseling. People with jaw pain benefit from wearing soft or firm oral splints or mouth guards inserted over their teeth. The increasing popularity of these devices is driving the growth of this segment. Moreover, physical therapy, including exercises to stretch and strengthen jaw muscles, and treatments like ultrasound, moist heat, and ice, are also commonly used to manage diseases. Additionally, education and therapy assist the patient in comprehending the elements and actions that can worsen pain so the patient can stay away from them. The market is expanding due to rising public awareness of these medicines, and this trend is anticipated to prevail during the forecast period.
Based on end-user, the global TMJ disorders market is segmented into hospitals and clinics, ambulatory surgery centers, academic institutes, and others.
The hospitals and clinics segment is the highest contributor to the market and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 4.45% over the forecast period. The growth of the TMJ disorders market in the hospitals and clinics segment is driven by the increasing prevalence of TMJ disorders. As per the American Family Physician (AFP), TMD affects up to 15% of adults. All these cases ultimately involve hospitals and clinics to treat TMJ disorders. Furthermore, the rise in the visiting rate of patients in hospitals and clinics is boosting the segment's growth.
Ambulatory surgery facilities have experienced rapid expansion in recent years due to their affordable services and less stressful environment than many hospitals. Additionally, the presence of advanced technologies and less stay required in hospitals attract a more significant number of patients. Moreover, increasing government and organizational support for ambulatory surgery centers are anticipated to create a massive opportunity in this segment.
By region, the global TMJ disorders market is divided into the Americas, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and the Middle East and Africa.
Americas is the most significant shareholder in the global TMJ disorders market and is anticipated to grow at a CAGR of 4.32% during the forecast period. This growth is expected to continue and can be attributed to the high prevalence of disease and the introduction and rapid adoption of advanced treatments in this region. Over 10 million Americans, according to estimates from the National Institutes of Health, are thought to suffer from TMJ issues, according to research released by the US Department of Health and Human Services. Furthermore, according to the American hospital association (AHA), there were 6,210 hospitals in 2017 in the US. Factors such as the increasing number of hospitals and clinics and the rapid adoption of advanced technologies by small and large clinics drive the market growth of this region.
Europe is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 3.91% over the forecast period. Europe held the second-largest position in the TMJ disorder market in 2021 owing to the region's enormous spending on healthcare and a well-developed medical industry. An increase in TMJ disease incidence is driving the market expansion in the region. The accessibility of cutting-edge diagnostic and therapeutic solutions is also significantly contributing to the growth of this industry. In addition, ongoing research by medical research laboratories and academic institutes is leading to new developments for effective cures for this disorder. Other factors, such as the rising spending on healthcare and extended insurance coverage, are driving the market growth in the region. For instance, as per the report of Euro Stat, in 2017, the EU Member States France, Germany, and Sweden had spent 11.0% to 11.3% of total GDP on healthcare. Furthermore, the healthcare expenditure in Germany was EUR 369 billion in 2017. In contrast, France recorded the second highest healthcare expenditure, around EUR 260 billion, followed by Italy, which was EUR 153 billion, and Spain, EUR 103 billion.
Asia-Pacific is anticipated to register the highest growth rate over the forecast period. This growth is owing to the high incidence of TMJ disorder, increased government initiatives, and the presence of a large number of pharmaceutical companies. Various initiatives taken by the government to support the healthcare system are fueling the growth of the regional market. For instance, in August 2020, the government announced the national health ID for every Indian to create a centralized mechanism to identify every participating user in the National Health Stack uniquely. Furthermore, the increasing disposable income of middle-class families, which accounts for a large population in Asia, encourages more spending on health, driving the growth of the TMJ disorder market in the region. Furthermore, as per the report published at pub med.gov by the Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, TMD pain was found in 14·8% (n = 817) of the Chinese sample from 5,524 samples. This high prevalence in the Asia-Pacific region is propelling the growth of the regional TMJ disorder market.
The TMJ disorder market in the Middle East and Africa has been growing steadily in the past few years. The rising prevalence of TMJ disorders and government and private funding are the main drivers of this market's expansion. According to the International Trade Administration report, the Saudi healthcare sector is the largest in the Near East. Saudi Arabia's health and social affairs budget for 2019 outlines an 8% increase to USD 46 billion compared to USD 42.4 billion in 2018.
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