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Train HVAC Market

Train HVAC Market: Information by Train Type (Passenger Train), System (Vapor Cycle Systems), Refrigerator (Conventional Refrigerants), Component (Air Dampers), and Region — Forecast till 2030

Published On : 23 Nov, 2022
Updated On : 25 Nov, 2022
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Market Snapshot

Base Year:
2021
Study Period:
2020-2030
CAGR:
3.4 %
Fastest Growing Market:
Europe 
Largest Market:
Asia-Pacific

The global train HVAC market size was valued at USD 13.18 billion in 2021. It is projected to reach USD 17.81 million by 2030, growing at a CAGR of 3.4% during the forecast period (2022-2030). HVAC systems ensure that heavy and light droplets are dealt with quickly and effectively. An HVAC system's primary functions include providing thermal comfort and maintaining decent indoor air quality through proper ventilation and filtration. Filters, heat exchangers, heating coils, radial fans, and deflectors are just a few of the parts that act to inhibit some viral particles. The lengthy and intricate air duct inside the carriage and these individual parts work together to catch a significant portion of all virus particles. Some research shows that less than 1% of bigger droplets and only 15% of aerosols return to the interior of a carriage. The viral load is further diluted by mixing this filtered air with new air before it is returned to the carrier.

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Market Dynamics

Global Train HVAC Market Drivers

Increasing Demand for Rapid Transit

Economies worldwide are making significant investments in constructing railway infrastructure due to the growing global population and the escalating need for faster, safer, and more comfortable transit. Rapid transit is a form of high-capacity public transportation typically utilized in urban areas. It is also referred to as a heavy rail, metro, subway, tube, U-Bahn, or underground. Rapid transit systems are electric railroads that employ high or separate tunnels and have an exclusive right of way inaccessible to pedestrians and other vehicles.

On designated routes between stations, modern rapid transit services are offered. These vehicles are primarily electric multiple units on rail tracks. Special trains were needed to reduce gaps between trains and platforms, which are usually high at the stations. They are frequently run by the same public transport authorities and are commonly combined with other forms of public transportation. The growth and development of rapid transit systems are anticipated to drive the train HVAC market over the forecast period.

Global Train HVAC Market Restraint

Low Lifespan and High Maintenance Cost of Railway HVAC Equipment

HVAC systems regulate all functions linked to temperature and moisture regulation in trains and other end-user sectors such as automobiles, chemicals, and others. Railway HVAC systems must run continually in challenging environmental conditions of temperature, moisture, and pressure. Due to this, they are associated with a poor lifespan and high maintenance costs. It is expected that this will reduce the need for HVACs in final applications and cause a shift in consumer tastes toward other technologies.

Global Train HVAC Market Opportunities

Integration of Cloud-based Monitoring Systems and IoT

There has been a rise in the use of IoT technologies in a wide range of final-product contexts over the past few years. This phenomenon has superseded conventional technology due to its enhanced features and functionalities. The Internet of Things (IoT) is a game-changer in HVAC systems since it allows for more efficient operation and better temperature control. Additionally, cloud-based monitoring technologies aid in tracking people, conveying signals through IoT, and regulating load capacity. This will complement the demand curve by increasing the expected demand for HVAC systems from railway industries.

Segmental Analysis

The global train HVAC market is segmented by train type, system, refrigerator, and component.

Based on train type, the global market is bifurcated into passenger trains and freight trains.

The passenger train segment is the highest contributor to the market and is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 3.27% during the forecast period. Currently, rail is one of the most energy-efficient forms of transportation, moving 7% of all freight and 8% of all motorized passengers worldwide while using only 2% of the energy needed for transportation. In the last ten years, urban and high-speed rail infrastructure has increased, creating the groundwork for accessible, low-emissions transportation within and between cities. During the anticipated period, the passenger train segment is anticipated to rise in this region due to measures by the European Union to switch intercity passenger trips from road to rail transportation and investments in creating efficient passenger trains.

The logistics sector faces more significant hurdles due to the evolving global supply chain market, including the mounting need to provide quick and flexible services at competitive prices. In the fast-changing environment, road and inland canal transportation pose fierce competition to freight rail, which may only worsen. The hybrid technology, which was adopted by coaches, freight cars, and locomotives in addition to locomotives, increased operational effectiveness and reduced operating costs for rail operators. Manufacturers of train HVAC systems now have a rare opportunity thanks to such technological breakthroughs. For instance, Thermo King Corporation produces a variety of goods for freight trains, including steel-wheeled refrigerators and trailers on flat cars. The temperature must be continuously monitored when transporting food, chemicals, and other goods. In order to meet the rising demand, businesses are creating brand-new cutting-edge HVAC systems.

Based on the system, the global market is bifurcated into vapor cycle systems and air cycle systems.

The vapor cycle systems segment owns the highest market share and is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 3.41% during the forecast period. The majority of railway HVAC systems use vapor cycle systems since they can be used in light rail vehicles and high-speed trains for driver's cabs and passenger saloons. It can be utilized as split, compact, roof-mounted, or floor-mounted units. Vapor cycle systems offer maximum comfort and low weight and noise emissions. The vapor cycle systems are also effective in stopping moisture from accumulating and controlling the development of pathogens and odors common in heavily used areas. For instance, HFC-134a (75%) and HFC-407C (25%) are used in train HVAC systems. Working fluids have an enormous potential for global warming when released into the environment.

Since their refrigeration cycle does not involve phase transformation, air cycle systems are environmentally beneficial. This segment is expected to experience the highest growth during the predicted period since governments worldwide are trying to minimize emissions. The air cycle system can operate in a wide range of temperatures and performs well at low temperatures. In a phase-down strategy, the European Union wants to gradually decrease the production and use of HFCs and swap them out for less hazardous compounds. Germany announced testing for air cycle systems in their train carriages. However, because this system relies on an open-loop mechanism, air leakage eventually develops in them. The vapor cycle system has a higher efficiency than the air-cooling method. These elements could impede segment expansion during the anticipated timeframe.

Based on the refrigerator, the global market is bifurcated into conventional and natural refrigerants (Co2).

The conventional refrigerants segment is the highest contributor to the market and is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 3.41% during the forecast period. High-speed trains, regional trains, trams, and metro cars are all examples of rail transportation. Several separately air-conditioned vehicles make up each train. Various air conditioning systems include split, compact central, split roof, and compact under-the-floor. Most current air conditioning systems for train HVAC applications use hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants with a high global warming potential in a vapor compression cycle. R134a and R407C are the two most common refrigerants in Europe. The global market for environmentally friendly HVAC refrigerants is growing due to laws and incentives.

Rail AC runs continually to maintain reduced humidity levels to stop mold and mildew growth and cooling for passenger comfort. In order to assure passenger safety, the optimum refrigerant must also be non-flammable and meet all of these requirements. Despite having favorable thermodynamic characteristics and a low critical temperature of 31°C, CO2 becomes supercritical at higher temperatures. For this, the evaporator functions as a gas chiller since the highly compressed gas can no longer condense. These characteristics of CO2 make it an ideal candidate for use as a heat pump. It offers significant energy savings over conventional systems when working in the heating mode. The CO2 air-conditioning technologies enable very compact design options because of the thermodynamic characteristics of CO2 and the high energy density.

Based on components, the global market is bifurcated into air dampers and blowers.

The blowers segment owns the highest market share and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 3.43% during the forecast period. An evaporator unit includes a centrifugal blower powered by a motor, a heat exchanger, a resistance heating unit, and a thermostatic expansion valve. In this scenario, the thermostatic expansion valve regulates the amount of high-pressure liquid refrigerant and permits expansion to lower pressure in line with load demand. While in certain instances, the evaporator, blower, and heat unit replace outdated blowers, evaporators, and steam heat coils with electric heat, a modern evaporator and modern blowers in a single unit are designed to fit in the overhead area in most historical passenger vehicles. Blower fans in the HVAC units are used to ventilate the vehicle. Fresh air enters the vehicle through stainless steel fresh air intakes and pass-through ducts, which have drains enabling condensation and water to be routed to the outside of the automobile.

The air inside the coaches of commuter trains is constantly drawn in by the HVAC system, cooled, filtered, and then discharged back into the atmosphere. After going through the same cooling and filtration devices, the system simultaneously releases the outside air it has drawn into the coaches. Under typical driving circumstances, fresh air dampers are employed to let fresh air into the vehicle thoroughly. Each has three possible states: open, limited, and closed. The dampers close during high or low ambient temperatures and can restrict fresh air intake to up to 10% of the capacity when the ambient temperature is average. In order to maximize outside air to achieve the ideal interior temperature, dampers run sporadically between open and closed during periods of mild temperature.

Regional Analysis of the Global Train HVAC Market

The global train HVAC market is bifurcated into four regions, namely North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and LAMEA.

Asia-Pacific Dominates the Global Market

Train HVAC Market Regional Analysis

Regional Growth Insights Request Sample Pages

Asia-Pacific is the most significant global train HVAC market shareholder and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 3.42% during the forecast period. The extension of current lines and the emergence of new metro projects throughout the nation fuel the steady growth of the Indian rolling stock industry. The government strongly encouraged domestic manufacturing operations in the "Make in India" project. To guarantee that at least 75% of the railcars and 25% of the essential components and subsystems are built in India, the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs imposed requirements in the tender and accompanying papers. In addition, due to China's extensive geographic area, varied topography, and climatic circumstances, the railway network is one of the most dependable means of transportation for products and people. As a result, the railway system has contributed significantly to the nation's economic development.

Europe is expected to grow at a CAGR of 3.41%, generating USD 6,017.70 million during the forecast period. One of the largest rail systems in the world is found in Germany. The nation's major cities and towns all have many train stations, reflecting the popularity of train travel. City night line trains are returning as tourism in the nation increases because they provide commuters with fascinating tourist routes like Amsterdam to Copenhagen, Munich or Prague, Berlin to Paris, and Munich to Venice or Rome. According to Jesse Norman, the Light Rail Minister, future transportation networks in England's towns and cities may depend heavily on additional light rail and other fast transit options. Trains are often quicker and more pleasant than coaches for long-distance travel inside England, albeit they are slightly more expensive. There are about 20 distinct rail service providers in England, and Network Rail manages the lines and stations. In addition, the United Kingdom also has a sound metro system, which increases the need for new HVAC and rail infrastructure.

North America is anticipated to grow significantly during the forecast period. The U.S. commuters benefit from a robust subway system that makes daily commuting easier. The rail network moves large amounts of heavy goods across great distances throughout the United States. The country's railways are heavily utilized for freight transportation and passenger travel. According to the Association of American Railroads reports, the United States is home to 614 freight railroads, with a 140,000-mile rail network. Compared to other means of transporting freight, such as trucks (23.3%), cars, light trucks, and motorcycles (61%), this helps reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, Canada has a vast, well-developed rail network for passenger travel and freight transportation (which makes up the majority of its utilization). There are two publicly traded transcontinental freight railroad networks: Canadian Pacific and Canadian National.

Over the next five to 10 years, the Brazilian rail transport market is anticipated to witness a dramatic expansion. The need for rail infrastructure to support freight connections from important ports to other country areas is projected to develop directly proportional to the number of raw commodities exported. UAE's National Advisor Bureau is considering using underwater rail to connect Mumbai and Fujairah. If built, the train line would be 2000 km long. The Bureau's other aim is to use this connection to construct pipelines for water and oil, allowing UAE to export water to UAE and India to export oil to UAE.

Competitive Analysis

The global train HVAC market’s major key players are Thermo King Corporation, Merak SA, Liebherr-Transportation Systems GmbH & Co. KG, Siemens AG, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Toshiba International Corporation, Leel Electricals Limited (formerly Lloyd Electric & Engineering Limited), Honeywell International Inc., Trane Inc., and Faiveley Transport.

Recent Developments

  • July 2022- Thermo King® By Trane Technologies accelerated electrification innovation in Europe with new research & development center.
  • September 2022- Merak SA announced Siemens and partners launched the ‘safe.trAIn’ research project.

Global Train HVAC Market: Segmentation

By Train Type

  • Passenger Train
  • Freight Train

By Systems

  • Vapor Cycle Systems
  • Air Cycle Systems

By Refrigerator

  • Conventional Refrigerants
  • Natural Refrigerants (CO2)

By Component

  • Air Dampers
  • Blowers

By Regions

  • North America
  • Europe
  • Asia-Pacific
  • LAMEA
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