Turbomolecular pumps (TMPs) are kinetic vacuum pumps, whose working principle is based upon the transfer of impulses from rapidly rotating blades to the gas molecules being pumped. Rotating blades in the pump can reach high speeds between 24,000 and 90,000 RPM. Turbomolecular pumps typically operate in a pressure range of 10-3– 10-11 mbar, resulting in pumping speeds between 10 and 4,000 l/s. They are used across various applications, such as chemical analysis and glass coating systems and semiconductor manufacturing.
The turbomolecular pumps market was valued at USD 1,097.5 million in 2019 and is expected to reach USD 1,274.9 million by 2025, with a CAGR of 5.4%.
The turbomolecular pumps market is projected to witness a healthy growth rate on account of rapid expansion of the semiconductor industry, miniaturization trend in the electronics and electric industry, and growth of electronic vehicles. The growing demand for analytical instruments in the pharmaceutical, chemical, and food industry and rising biotechnology industry bolsters the market growth. However, the turbomolecular pumps market is a relatively mature market that is expected to reflect in its overall growth rate in terms of value and volume.
Miniaturization Trend in the Electric and Electronics Industry Drives the Market Growth
The recent trend of miniaturization in the electrical and electronics industry has compelled the manufacturers to focus on the development of smaller electronic products and devices. The trend can be principally observed in semiconductors, where decreasing device size and increasing wafer size are imperative to delivering cost benefits. Thus, the developments in the field of miniature technologies are expected to drive the demand for process vacuum and turbomolecular pumps in the coming years.
Figure 1: Silicon Wafer Size Evolution, 1960–2016
The introduction of new materials in semiconductor processes and the burgeoning growth of new vapor phase techniques, such as atomic layer deposition (ALD), have presented new pumping challenges, which has surged the demand for advanced turbomolecular pumps. Semiconductors are the fundamental element in vehicle electrification as they play a significant part in reducing the cost of electric vehicle batteries. Thus, the turbomolecular pumps market is expected to grow in tandem with the concept of electric mobility during the forecast period.
Figure 2: Global EV Sales, 2017 vs. 2018
Source: The Edison Electric Institute
Rising Demand for Vacuum Technology in the Energy and Consumer Durables Sector
Complex and advanced technologies are gaining traction amid rapid industrialization globally, propelling innovation in industrial sectors. The vacuum processing technology is one such innovation that has emerged as a result of its demand in manufacturing activities across the electrical and electronics, power, consumer durables, and scientific instrumentation industries.
While vacuum technology is predominantly used for condenser exhausting, geothermal gas removal, and fuel gas desulphurization applications across the power sector, it is expected that the film deposition and fabrication requirements of solar cell modules and silicon wafers will drive the bulk of the demand in years to come.
Figure 3: The U.S. Solar PV Price Declines and Deployment Growth
Source: Solar Energy Industries Association
A recent couple of years have observed a seismic shift in power generation and demand, primarily influenced by depleting fossil fuel reserves and growing environmental concerns. Solar energy has gained prominence as an ideal, renewable alternative to conventional fuel. The demand for solar cells is thus gaining traction, further accelerating the demand for turbomolecular pumps.
In the consumer durables sector, vacuum technology is primarily used in the manufacturing of flat panel displays. Rapid economic growth, rising consumer spending, and improving living standards around the globe have surged the demand for flat-screen TFT-LCD TVs, which is further accelerating the demand for bigger turbomolecular pumps.
High Maintenance Cost Associated with Turbomolecular Pumps to Restrain Market Growth
The maintenance cost of a turbomolecular pump suspended by active magnetic bearings (AMBs) is relatively high as the bearings of the pumps are oil-free, which makes them prone to wear and tear, and they may need to be replaced from time to time. Apart from this, turbomolecular pumps require small backing pumps to perform efficiently in high atmospheric pressure conditions, which further adds to the operation cost.
Turbomolecular Pumps Market: Segmentation
Rising Demand for Magnetically Suspended Turbomolecular Pumps in Several Industries
Based on type, the market is segmented into magnetically suspended and oil Immersed. The magnetically suspended turbomolecular pumps are high-velocity vacuum pump in which the rotor is axially or radially suspended with respect to the stator with the help of magnetic bearings. This arrangement of the rotor ensures that there is no risk of contamination, along with minimizing the vibration and noise. These pumps are capable of calculating an operating state of the pump without using a pressure gauge and flowmeter. In the last three decades, the world has witnessed a pace up industrialization and globalization, owing to which the production demand from the aforementioned industries have increased, which is further driving the demand for turbomolecular pumps in the market.
Functional Versatility of Analytical Instrumentation Turbomolecular Pumps Drives the Segment Growth
Based on industry, the market is segmented into industrial vacuum processing, nanotechnology instruments, and analytical instrumentation. The analytical instrumentation turbomolecular pumps are operated in high-end mass spectrometers for various applications such as gas-chromatography mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Additionally, the highly flexible rotor design and pumping speeds of these pumps at different inlet ports adapt perfectly to the pressure requirements of the mass spectrometer system. Thus, making them the material of choice for these applications.
Figure 4: European pharmaceutical industry
Source: European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations
China, Japan, and Taiwan to Be the Frontrunners in Asia-Pacific’s Market Growth
Asia-Pacific holds the highest share in the turbomolecular pumps market owing to the large production of semiconductors and flat-panel displays in the region. China, the frontrunner in the Asian market, has recorded the fastest growth compared to other countries. The semiconductor industry has gained significant traction in recent years due to the ubiquity of smartphones and increasing digitalization across the globe. Furthermore, the expanding applications of the Internet of Things (IoT) technologies are transforming trends in various industries, further providing an impetus to the market growth.
Figure 5: Asia Pacific Semiconductor Market Growth Forecast Summary, 2019–2021 (USD Million)
Source: World Semiconductor Trade Statistics (WSTS)
As per projections by the World Semiconductor Trade Statistics (WSTS), the Asia-Pacific semiconductor market is anticipated to reach USD 281,725 million by 2021. Additionally, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Vietnam are set to emerge as the largest flat-panel display-producing countries. As per statistics by the China Video Industry Association and China Optics and Optoelectronics Manufacturers Association, the nation invested over USD 120 billion in flat-panel display production lines and around USD 75 billion in liquid crystal display (LCD) panel production.
With the growing demand for displays for televisions, smartphones, PCs, and other electronic products, the key participants manufacturing flat panel displays and LCDs are ramping up production for increasing revenue from exports. For instance, Shenzhen China Star Optoelectronics Technology Co Ltd announced an investment of USD 6.14 billion in a new production line for large-screen display products and organic LED screens for mass production in March 2021, with a set manufacturing capacity of 90,000 modules per month.
Figure 6: Lcd and flat panel display sector in Asia-pacific
Source: World Data and RM Analysis
The manufacturing of flat-panel displays and semiconductors requires a clean, oil-free vacuum environment, which can be achieved with turbomolecular pumps. They are widely used in ion implantation systems and the doping of semiconductors. A semiconductor manufacturing facility with a 40,000 wafer per month capacity approximately requires around 2000 pumps and over 500 turbos. The strong semiconductor and flat panel display manufacturing infrastructure in China, Japan, and Taiwan are presenting ample growth opportunities for the regional turbomolecular pumps market.
Turbomolecular Pumps Market: Segmentation
Central and South America and the Caribbean
The Middle East