The global automotive parts magnesium die casting market size was valued at USD 11.9 billion in 2021. It is projected to reach USD 22.25 billion by 2030, growing at a CAGR of 7.2% during the forecast period (2022–2030). Die casting is a mechanical process in which a liquid melt quickly and is forced into a mold under high pressure. Since permanent metal molds are used instead of sand casting, which must be discarded after casting, this casting process is particularly well suited for producing components in large quantities. Magnesium is one of the thinnest and most malleable metals used in alloy die casting and machining. With the use of lightweight automotive materials in producing essential parts, lightweight vehicles are becoming increasingly popular among vehicle manufacturers. Magnesium also has high impact and dent resistance and excellent dimensional stability. Its low inertia and high damping capacity make it the perfect material for parts that frequently and abruptly change the direction of motion.
The market is expected to grow significantly as more strict emission regulations are adopted globally. Rising consumer interest in lightweight vehicles is likely to increase the use of lightweight materials like magnesium and carbon fiber-reinforced plastic in producing vehicle parts, which is expected to boost the market. Due to its thin-walled die-casting capability, structures can be produced as a single unit rather than being put together from separate parts. As a result, design is made simpler, reliability is increased, assembly costs are reduced, tooling costs are minimum, and there are fewer welds, joints, and fasteners. Engine cradles, gearboxes, clutch housings, wheels, oil pans, and engine blocks are a few specific places where magnesium is used.
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Reducing Automobile Manufacturing Carbon Footprint
Primary decarbonization drives and programs have been launched by the automotive industries in major global economies to reduce vehicle emissions significantly. As a result, hybrid and other new energy vehicles, as well as electric vehicles, are widely adopted in developed regions. Sizable investments in developing nations like India have been made in infrastructure development for electric vehicles. The factors above contribute to the automotive industry's increasing use of lightweight materials like magnesium. The new BS-VI vehicles have decreased NOx, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbon emissions. OEMs and automakers are concentrating on lightening vehicles to reduce emissions, driving the uptake of materials like magnesium.
Time-Saving Manufacturing with Precise Specifications
Magnesium may be cast in any shape and size needed because it is ductile and light in weight. This leads to fewer joints and welds while manufacturing the vehicle components. Parts manufactured from magnesium take significantly less time and can be manufactured with more accuracy. The cost of producing numerous small components, then putting them together to form larger parts is reduced when substantial pieces are made on a single die. The parts produced using magnesium die have more precise specifications and are produced without much-skilled labor on casting machines. Thin-walled magnesium die-castings can replace intricate sheet metal components, enabling more cost-effective production and assembly.
Slow Rate of Adoption of Magnesium Alloy in Die-Casting
The slow rate of magnesium alloy adoption in die casting, despite the metal's excellent vibrational resistance and other desirable properties for automotive components, is a market growth restraint. The primary cause is the limited and challenging use of magnesium due to the lack of innovation and advancement in magnesium die-casting technology. The high porosity compromises the structural strength and better castability of the magnesium products produced by the high-pressure cold chamber die-casting process.
The future adoption of die-casting by significant players is seriously threatened by developing new techniques like rheocasting. Due to the high transition costs associated with rheocasting, small players may continue to use die-casting. While electric vehicles are expected to become more prevalent in the future, it is essential to note that the typical internal combustion engine in a conventional automobile consists of about 200 pieces and components cast using dies. Those magnesium components comprise just 1% of the car's overall weight. Electric vehicle motors with only 20 die-cast components can further reduce this number.
Energy Conservation Initiatives by Governments Worldwide
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the United States have developed a new set of emission norms. The new greenhouse gas emission norms and CAFÉ norms will be implemented for passenger and light truck models. The need for components made using the die-casting process is increasing due to government initiatives to reduce energy consumption. Other vehicle parts are also having their manufacturing procedures updated. The industry is quickly reducing the manufacturing process's carbon footprint, which is expected to create opportunities for market growth during the forecast period.
The global automotive parts magnesium die casting market is segmented by the production process, application, and vehicle type.
Based on the Production Process, the market is segmented into pressure die casting, vacuum die casting, gravity die casting, and squeeze die casting.
The pressure die-casting segment is the highest contributor to the market and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 7.5% during the forecast period. Pressure die casting works well for producing complex shapes in large quantities that are highly durable and simple to integrate with complementary parts. Pressure die-casting is essential to design and produce the transmission, power train, and battery compartment housings for hybrid and electric vehicles. Low-pressure die casting (LPDC) and high-pressure die (HPDC) casting are two categories for the pressure die casting process.
Gravity die casting is the second dominant production process in the market and is predicted to grow at a CAGR of 7.1% over the forecast period. One of the earliest die-casting techniques is gravity die-casting. The process is employed in shuttle or carousel casting units, specifically for the production of engine castings, due to its characteristics, as optimal heat dissipation from the solidifying casting through the die results in shorter solidification times and, as a result, castings with better mechanical properties, especially after additional heat treatment. Therefore, gravity die-casting processes are employed in creating metal parts with precise dimensions, distinct definitions, and smooth or textured surfaces.
Based on Application, the market is segmented into body parts, engine parts, transmission parts, and others.
The body parts segment owns the highest market share and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 7.4% during the forecast period. Magnesium is nearly 20% lighter than aluminum and 60% lighter than steel in a car body structure of equal stiffness. Magnesium was rarely used in automotive body parts before 2013. But since then, magnesium has multiplied and is now utilized in the production of important automotive structural components due to magnesium's high strength-to-weight ratio and the automotive industry's emphasis on reducing the weight of passenger and commercial vehicles through design innovations in chassis and vehicle bodies.
Magnesium has seen a multi-fold increase in use in engine design because it has a better strength-to-weight ratio than steel or aluminum. Magnesium is used in the design and production of engine parts like engine blocks, gearbox and clutch housings, oil pans, wheels, and engine cradles, where stress distribution is crucial to preventing the build-up of heavy loads on vital parts.
Based on Vehicle Type, the market is segmented into heavy commercial vehicles, light commercial vehicles, and passenger cars.
The passenger car market is the highest contributor and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 7.5% during the forecast period. More than half of the market was dominated by the passenger cars segment in 2021, and the sector is anticipated to experience a sharp increase during the forecast period. Despite starting from a low base, sales of passenger vehicles nearly doubled in June due to pent-up demand, with more markets becoming available as a result of state governments relaxing regulations put in place during the second wave of the pandemic. According to estimates from the industry, in India, 255,674 passenger vehicles may have been sold locally in June as opposed to 116,928 units a year earlier. Compared to the 103,000 units sold in May, the total increased by almost two and a half times sequentially.
The global automotive magnesium die-casting market is segmented into North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and LAMEA.
Asia-Pacific Dominates the Global Market
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Asia-Pacific is the most significant shareholder in the global automotive magnesium die-casting market and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 7.6% during the forecast period. This region's significant manufacturing presence will likely present opportunities for the magnesium die-casting market for automotive parts. Significant market growth is expected due to the region's rapidly expanding small and medium manufacturing industries. The demand for magnesium die-casting parts is likely to rise as vehicle production increases throughout the region, which will likely lead to significant market growth.
China, which accounts for more than 64.90% of the regional (Asia-Pacific) die-casting market share, is one of the leading producers of die-cast parts. China has more than 26,000 facilities for the metal casting industry, 8,000 of which make non-ferrous castings. More than 49.3 million metric tons of castings are produced in China. Sophisticated and effective automatic die-casting machines supported metal die-casting in the nation. The development of the most recent technologies, increased production rates, and industrial restructuring have all contributed to the growth of the Chinese high-pressure die-casting market.
The European market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 7.3% over the forecast period. The largest automotive market in Europe is Germany, producing more than 30% of all passenger cars (5.12 million units) and about 20% of all new vehicle registrations (3.43 million units). Additionally, the concern for the environment has been steadily growing due to rising exhaust emissions and environmental concerns. Germany's auto industry has been having trouble since the Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP) was implemented across Europe. German automakers have phased out older passenger models in favor of rigorous emission testing protocols. As a result, the nation's car production is now less robust.
Major international players have begun planning to grow their operations in North America. Automotive supplier Bocar Group declared its intention to spend USD 115 million on a new facility in Huntsville, Alabama, where it will produce automotive parts. The new facility's construction started, and production was planned to begin by 2020. The business manufactures high-pressure die-cast automotive components for Ford, Toyota, and General Motors. With the growth of the service sector in the nation, the participation of the industrial sector slightly decreased.
Brazil is the world's third-largest producer of bauxite, demonstrating the country's accessibility to large-scale raw materials. With a 58% end-user market share, the automotive industry is the country's largest end market for die casting. By 2023, the nation is anticipated to produce one million cars annually. Argentina's domestic auto parts promotion law offered advantages for buying domestically produced internal combustion engines, gearboxes, and axial differentials for domestic automotive manufacturing.
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