The global Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) treatment market size was valued at USD 2.52 billion in 2022. It is estimated to reach USD 5.29 billion by 2031, growing at a CAGR of 8.6% during the forecast period (2023–2031).
Glioblastoma (GBM), commonly known as a grade IV astrocytoma, is an aggressive brain tumor that grows quickly. The local brain tissue gets invaded but typically does not spread to distant organs. Rapid cell aging causes the disease to exert enormous pressure on the brain, resulting in severe headaches and seizures. GBMs can develop from lower-grade astrocytomas or develop from new brain tumors. The cerebral hemispheres of adults, particularly the frontal and temporal lobes, are where GBM develops most frequently.
Since GBM is a particularly lethal form of brain cancer, it is critical to seek out specialist neuro-oncological and neurosurgical care without delay. This has the potential to lower the average lifespan. The specific etiology of the illnesses is still unknown, but several factors, including uncommon inherited disorders like Turcot syndrome, are thought to be the cause. It resists therapy and gives patients a very short post-diagnosis survival time. The current treatment modalities for this condition encompass radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgical intervention.
The surging incidence of brain tumors is expected to boost the glioblastoma multiforme treatment market over the forecast period. According to the Global Cancer Observatory, the incidence of brain and central nervous system (CNS) cancers was 308,102, and the number of fatalities was 251,331 in 2020. In addition, brain cancer is among the most lethal types of cancer. Glioblastoma multiforme is the most prevalent malignant tumor type, accounting for up to 54% of gliomas and 16% of primary brain cancers. Glioblastoma multiforme is higher in adults than children, and the risk of developing the disease rises with age. The world's aging population is one of the key factors increasing the incidence of glioblastoma multiforme and fueling market growth.
The increasing approval for novel and combination therapy is expected to drive market growth in the coming years. In June 2019, the U.S. FDA approved Pfizer's Zirabev, a biosimilar version of Avastin, for treating recurrent glioblastoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. The company introduced its product in the U.S. in January 2020. Due to tumor heterogeneity and patient variation, Glioblastoma multiforme management is anticipated to increase demand for a personalized treatment approach. The approval of new therapies is anticipated to enhance the life expectancy of glioblastoma multiforme patients.
Additionally, the FDA's special designation for investigational medications is anticipated to expedite the approval and commercialization of novel therapies. For instance, the U.S. FDA granted fast-track designation to Denovo Biopharma's DB102 (enzastaurin) for treating patients newly diagnosed with glioblastoma in July 2020. Moreover, in June 2020, the U.S. FDA granted orphan drug designation and fast-track designation to anthracycline and TVI-Brain-1, respectively, for treating glioblastoma multiforme.
The lack of effective therapy for treating glioblastoma multiforme is one of the major factors restraining the market growth. Currently, FDA-approved therapies are likely to cause neurotoxicity in patients suffering from glioblastoma multiforme and do not show any significant growth in the overall survival rate. Median overall survival is 15 to 20 months, and 5-year survival is less than 6%. In addition, the long-term survival rate is lowest in the case of glioblastoma multiforme compared to other malignant brain tumors. Due to a lack of significant survival benefits, bevacizumab is not approved in Europe. The complexity of glioblastoma multiforme and limited treatment options adversely affect the market growth.
An increase in Research and Development activities for developing novel targeted and immunotherapeutic approaches is expected to lead to an improved survival rate and a more favorable prognosis for patients suffering from glioblastoma multiforme. Companies such as Laminar Pharmaceuticals, Bristol Myers Squibb, Kazia Therapeutics Limited, Samsung Bioepis, and Denovo Biopharma are actively involved in developing novel therapy for treating glioblastoma multiforme. For instance, Laminar Pharmaceuticals is investigating the efficacy of its 2-OHOA in combination with temozolomide and radiation therapy for treating adult patients with glioblastoma.
Additionally, key players in the market are forming partnerships and joint ventures to develop and commercialize a novel therapeutic drug and to fortify their position in the global glioblastoma multiforme treatment market. For instance, in October 2019, Advaxis, Inc., a clinical-stage biotechnology company, announced a research collaboration agreement with the University of California for the development and commercialization of novel immunotherapy by using the company’s Lm Technology in mouse tumor models of glioblastoma multiforme. In addition, increased partnerships between academics and industry players are anticipated to hasten the creation of innovative and efficient glioblastoma multiforme treatment options.
The global Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) treatment market is bifurcated into treatment, drug, and end-user.
Based on treatment, the global Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) treatment market is segmented into surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, tumor-treating fields therapy, and immunotherapy.
The radiation therapy segment is the largest contributor to the market and is projected to exhibit a CAGR of 7.9% over the forecast period. Radiation therapy has long been used to treat GBM to manage the tumor and improve survival. In addition to temozolomide, radiation therapy is typically administered five days per week for a total of six weeks. Combining radiation therapy with systemic therapy has also been explored to potentially reduce the rate of radionecrosis. Radiation therapy may be prescribed as the initial treatment or alongside chemotherapy and surgery. It is also effective and strongly recommended for recurrent brain tumors. In conjunction with radiotherapy, temozolomide renders the tumor more sensitive to radiation. This combination of treatments is more effective than radiation alone.
Targeted therapy treats GBM because of its high accuracy and affinity by targeting growth factor receptors such as VEGFR, EGFR, and PDGFR. Bevacizumab is the only approved targeted therapy for the treatment of GBM. Increasing the use of targeted therapy to manage GBM is expected to drive segment growth during the forecast period. Moreover, increased research activities to develop novel targeted therapy for the disease is anticipated to boost market growth.
Based on the drug, the global Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) treatment market is segmented into temozolomide, bevacizumab, lomustine, carmustine wafers, and others.
The temozolomide segment owns the highest market share and is projected to exhibit a CAGR of 8.01% over the forecast period. In 2005, the U.S. FDA approved temozolomide (Temodar) for treating adult patients with newly diagnosed GBM. This compound is classified as an oral alkylating agent and is widely prescribed for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Its ability to traverse the blood-brain barrier enables it to exert therapeutic effects within the brain, effectively managing GBM. Temozolomide stops the cancerous cell from making DNA in the cell, ultimately limiting the growth of cancer cells in the brain.
In addition, the increasing use of temozolomide in combination with other drugs and therapy is expected to drive the demand for temozolomide in the coming years. It is proven in many studies that are combining temozolomide with radiation therapy and immunotherapy improves the life expectancy and effectiveness of the treatment. The ongoing studies of the combination therapies with temozolomide for treating GBM are expected to drive market growth over the forecast period.
Carmustine wafers, brand name Gliadel, is a type of medication carmustine implanted in the cavity of patients with GBM at the time of surgery. It is a biodegradable disk that releases chemotherapy to cancerous tissues left after surgery. The U.S. FDA has approved a carmustine wafer for the first-line treatment of GBM. Carmustine in wafers sticks to the cancer cell’s DNA strands to prevent cell division, which stops tumor growth. Carmustine wafers also improve survival when used in patients with newly diagnosed GBM. Moreover, the survival of patients who received this chemotherapy is significantly longer than patients who did not receive carmustine wafers.
Based on end-user, the global Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) treatment market is bifurcated into hospitals, clinics, and ambulatory surgical centers.
The hospital segment dominates the global market and is predicted to exhibit a CAGR of 8.2% during the forecast period. Patients prefer hospitals in terms of treatment accessibility and convenience. The high number of surgeries performed to treat GBM and the treatment's complexity are anticipated to drive the market. In addition, rising consumer awareness about novel and effective treatment options makes hospitals more preferred for patients. The presence of several facilities within hospitals positively impacts segment growth, such as length of hospital stay, total healthcare cost, quality of care, and emergency care.
The clinic-based setting for treating GBM is expected to grow fastest during the forecast period. Increasing adoption of noninvasive and patient-oriented treatments such as external beam radiation therapy and tumor-treating field therapy is anticipated to drive market growth. Johns Hopkins Medicine, for instance, offers radiation therapy, tumor-treating field therapy, and other treatments for brain malignancies. Moreover, in chemotherapy, patients often do not need to get hospitalized for the treatment and mostly prefer to visit the doctor's office or clinic. Hence, clinic-based setting is expected to grow fastest during the forecast period.
North America Dominates the Global Market
Based on region, the global Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) treatment market is bifurcated into North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East and Africa.
North America is the most significant global Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) treatment market shareholder and is estimated to exhibit a CAGR of 8.11% over the forecast period. This region holds the largest market share for government support for the development of the healthcare sector, heightened awareness of rare disorders, simple access to high-quality medical facilities, and favorable reimbursement policies. The healthcare system in North America (U.S., Canada) relies mostly on the government to provide healthcare services and health insurance. In addition, the active involvement of the government in providing quality and ease of such services gives the U.S. a major market share in the global market. In the U.S., the incidence rate of GMB is 3.19 per 100,000 population, which is further expected to drive market growth. Canada is anticipated to exhibit a rapid growth rate over the forecast period because of increasing healthcare expenditure and growing government initiatives to help spread awareness about rare disorders.
Europe is estimated to exhibit a CAGR of 8.2% during the forecast period. The European region market can be attributed to consistent initiatives undertaken by organizations such as the NHS, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, and the European Association of Neuro-Oncology (EANO). These initiatives include promoting advancements in neuro-oncology through innovative research, education and training and organizing campaigns to raise awareness about rare disorders. Moreover, various initiatives undertaken by government and nongovernment bodies across the globe to increase awareness by educating people living with glioblastoma multiforme and raising funds for R&D activities and treatment are expected to expedite the market growth during the forecast period.
In the UK, March is Brain Tumor Awareness Month, a campaign established by Brain Tumor Research member charities. The campaign's major objective is to raise awareness of the absence of funding for brain tumor research while educating the public about the disease and available treatments. GBM is Europe's common primary brain tumor, representing ~12%‐15% of all intracranial neoplasms and ~50%‐60% of all astrocytic tumors. The reported incidence of GBM is 2-3/10,000 people per capita per year. Thus, the surging prevalence of GMB is estimated to expedite the market expansion in the region.
Asia-Pacific nations have lower rates of GBM due to differences in genetics, diagnosis, healthcare infrastructure, and reporting procedures. The treatment modalities are the same as in other countries—surgery followed by radiation and chemotherapy. However, the output differs considering countries' economy and health insurance coverage. Asia-Pacific is expected to be the fastest-growing glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treatment market owing to various factors such as the entry of generics of temozolomide in the market, rising geriatric population, improving economy, and growing investments in the healthcare sector.
In Latin America, the glioblastoma multiforme treatment market is prominent in Brazil, Mexico, and Argentina. Growing investments by market participants in the region, proximity to North America, and free-trade agreements with major countries such as the U.S., Canada, Japan, and other European countries are predicted to promote the regional market during the forecast period.
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