The global HAI control market size was valued at USD 8.50 billion in 2022. It is estimated to reach USD 10.04 billion by 2031, growing at a CAGR of 1.87% during the forecast period (2023–2031).
The enforcement of stringent governmental regulations can substantially impact the market's expansion, consequently fostering the growth of the HAI control sector. HAI stands for Hospital-acquired infections. An HAI is an infection that results from medical care. This could happen in a hospital, ambulatory surgery center, nursing home, rehabilitation facility, or while receiving wound care services. Hospital-acquired infections can be caused by cross-contamination from the patient's and staff's skin and equipment's surfaces. Bacteria must infiltrate the body for an infection to develop after these procedures.
HAIs can occur in various methods, including through a wound, a catheter, or even by the lungs. HAI control is one of the most important procedures for preventing infections in healthcare settings. Sterilization, cleansing and disinfection products, protective barriers, and endoscope reprocessing products are among the various products and services available for controlling hospital-acquired infections.
|Market Size||USD 10.04 billion by 2031|
|Fastest Growing Market||Europe|
|Largest Market||North America|
|Report Coverage||Revenue Forecast, Competitive Landscape, Growth Factors, Environment & Regulatory Landscape and Trends|
The US Centre for Disease Control and Prevention identifies that about 1.7 million hospitalized patients acquire HAIs while being treated for distinct health issues annually. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported a significant increase nationally in 2020 for CLABSI, CAUTI, VAE, and MRSA. It was also stated that the largest increase occurred during the second half of 2020. The data reveals a notable rise of 47% in central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI), with a specific increase of 65% observed inside intensive care units (ICUs). There was a significant 16% increase in CLABSI cases within selected inpatient wards.
Similarly, catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) had an overall increase of 19%, with ICUs demonstrating a substantial rise of 30% in CAUTI cases. Non-compliance with infection control measures, poor infrastructure, and lack of awareness are the significant causes of the rise in the number of HAI incidents in hospitals. The need for improved hygiene in specialty clinics, hospitals, and ambulatory surgery centers to prevent the spread of HAIs among patients and healthcare workers is driving the demand for HAI control products.
HAIs are a major safety concern for patients and healthcare providers worldwide. As a result, various regulatory bodies and government organizations are mandated to follow appropriate prevention and control measures to lessen the adverse effects of infections acquired in various healthcare facilities. For instance, the WHO advocates effective hand hygiene as the most important practice to prevent and control HAIs, forming colonies with multi-drug-resistant microbes.
Due to rising HAI incidences, medical device regulating bodies initiated the regularization of reprocessed medical devices. This has caused strict regulation adoption by countries that have increased the adoption of disinfection and sterilization methods to prevent HAIs. For instance, the FDA has allowed the reuse of 70 medical devices divided into three categories based on the risk factor of the device. Therefore, the implementation of rigorous government rules can have a significant influence on the expansion of the market, thereby stimulating the growth of the HAI control industry.
Single-use/disposable medical devices do not require sterilization/disinfection or reprocessing. Healthcare providers are shifting to disposable products as a safer alternative to reusable devices, which can still cause infection even if decontaminated properly. During the COVID-19 pandemic, disposable medical devices were incorporated extensively, impacting disinfectants and sterilization equipment. Thus, this is impeding the uptake and acceptance of sterilization and disinfection products, eventually impeding the expansion of the market.
Newer sterilization trends in the HAI control market include new low-temperature sterilization technology like Hydrogen peroxide gas plasma, vaporized hydrogen peroxide, ozone and hydrogen peroxide, and nitrogen dioxide. De Lama developed an innovative product, HyPerPure, which consumes low H2O2. It is a low-temperature sterilization technology with hydrogen peroxide under a deep vacuum and zero air developed to sterilize thermo-labile or heat-sensitive finished products. It is the alternative to EtO and gamma ray sterilization, offering advantages compared to the traditional techniques.
Furthermore, Sterigenics introduced a nitrogen dioxide (NO2) gas sterilization method. NO2 sterilization offers minimal pressure requirements, ultra-low temperature, no cytotoxic residuals, and fast cycle times. Tuttnauer is also offering a new innovative product, PlazMax, a low-temperature plasma sterilizer with heat-sensitive sterilization and a non-toxic sterilizing agent, vaporized hydrogen peroxide. It also provides minimal utility requirements: low electricity and no water consumption. Such technological advancements create opportunities for HAI control market growth.
Based on region, the global HAI control market is bifurcated into North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East and Africa.
North America is the most significant global HAI control market shareholder and is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 1.18% over the forecast period. Increasing demand for infection control products and the continuous rise in HAI-related problems are leading the market. The region has many key vendors, such as Ecolab, Steris, 3M, Fortive's Advanced Sterilization Products, and Sterigenics, offering a diverse range of disinfection and sterilization products. Steris has been the highest revenue-making company in infection control sales, making over USD 2,639.97 million. These organizations are actively engaged in research and development activities to develop more innovative and new infection prevention and control products in the coming years, which will overcome the limitations restricting the reduction of HAI cases in the region.
Additionally, the launch of new innovative products, especially during the COVID-19 outbreak, has increased the HAI control market share of these companies. For example, 3M was the largest producer of disposable N95 respirators in 2020. The region's demand for HAI infection prevention and control products is mainly boosted by the surged use of EtO, high incidences of HAIs due to a large pool of patients, and stringent government regulations.
Europe is predicted to exhibit a CAGR of 1.42% over the forecast period. The European market is growing significantly due to the increasing prevalence of HAIs. A total of 310,755 patients from 1,209 acute care hospitals across 28 countries participated in point prevalence assessments of HAIs and antibiotic use in 2016 and 2017. The geriatric population is at a greater risk of developing HAI patients with chronic diseases, leading to increasing demand for HAI preventive measures. Moreover, the healthcare system in this region is advanced, highly regulated, sophisticated, and evolved with a standard reimbursement structure.
Additionally, the increasing government expenditure on healthcare because of outbreaks such as COVID-19 is a major factor in increasing incidences of HAIs in 2019 and 2020, contributing to market growth. Most companies offer a diverse range of disinfectants and sterilization equipment in the region. For instance, prominent regional players, such as MMM Group, Systec, Steelco, and Matachana Group, offer new and innovative products to control HAIs in Europe. Thus, much wider product availability is driving the market.
In Asia-Pacific, HAI incidences are dominant because of the rapidly growing elderly population in developed countries such as Japan, which is among the longest-lived countries in the world, ultimately leading to an increase in the geriatric population. Due to the active surveillance system and interventions, the HAI incidence rate is comparatively low in Japan and South Korea, which have strictly complied with IPC practices. In addition, a large patient population with acute and chronic diseases, advancements in healthcare infrastructure, and rising healthcare expenditures are major contributors to this region's growth. For example, in China, there are trends in total health spending from 2000 to 2017, showing a faster increase in health expenditure by the government and social health insurance system in recent years.
In Latin America, the increased prevalence of several acute and chronic illnesses is associated with an increased geriatric population. It will likely offer growth opportunities in the regional market. The region represents a large area, approximately 8.7% of the global population, while most live in developing countries. Factors such as non-compliance to the guidelines implemented, high costings due to longer stay of inpatients, and a high aging population are associated with a higher prevalence of HAIs in the region and implicitly driving the market in Latin America.
The Middle East and Africa market is growing slowly compared with other regions due to a large, undertreated patient population that requires advanced treatment devices for HAI prevention, increased government initiatives, and healthcare funding and improvements in healthcare infrastructure. Moreover, the region is a rapidly developing part of the world, and the increase in average life-expectancy non-compliance to the guidelines set up by the government to be followed by the health workers is also anticipated to increase the prevalence over the coming years and contribute to the market's growth.
The global HAI control market is bifurcated into procedure, product, and end-user.
Based on procedure, the global market is segmented into disinfection, sterilization, and others.
The disinfection segment is the largest contributor to the market and is projected to exhibit a CAGR of 2.07% over the forecast period. Disinfection is a process that eliminates/kills microorganisms and deactivates undesirable microbes that are carried by inert contaminated environments. In healthcare settings, medical devices are routinely disinfected by liquid disinfectants. In healthcare settings, many disinfectants, such as hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid, are used alone or in combination.
Some of the disinfectants used in healthcare facilities include alcohol, chlorine and chlorine compounds, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, ortho-phthalaldehyde, iodophors, peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, phenolics, and quaternary ammonium compounds. Moreover, despite being the crucial step in decontamination, hospitals and healthcare providers use disinfectants to avoid the risk of HAIs and transmission of other diseases.
Sterilization destroys microorganisms, including the most resistant bacteria and spores, and is followed in all healthcare facilities using physical or chemical methods. The process is called a 12-log reduction. Steam (pressure), dry heat, EtO gas, hydrogen peroxide gas plasma, and liquid chemicals are principal sterilizing agents used in healthcare facilities. The chemicals destroy all forms of microbiologic life and are called chemical sterilizers.
Based on the product, the global market is segmented into consumables and instruments.
The consumables segment is the highest contributor to the market and is projected to exhibit a CAGR of 2.01% over the forecast period. Consumables provide a broad selection of goods to guarantee that sterile processing is a secure and closed cycle. Consumables used for sterile assurance include administrative monitoring, mechanical indicators, chemical indicators, and biological indicators. They range from detergents and wash monitors to packaging solutions and sterility assurance. In addition, work practices are supervised through administrative monitoring. Presently, the demand for consumables is increasing significantly, compelling vendors to offer a range of disinfection and sterilization consumables. Both global and local/regional players offer a range of consumables catering to end-user requirements. As revenues from consumables are recurring, vendors strategize to maximize their volume and profit margins by expanding their existing consumables.
The instruments segment is growing slower than the consumables segment as it is capital-intensive, and the purchasing decisions depend on financial resources and budget allocations for healthcare facilities. However, instruments/equipment used for disinfection and sterilization is witnessing higher growth. There is an increase in surgical procedures and inappropriate sterilization of these medical instruments, increasing demand for improved and innovative disinfectants and sterilizers. In addition, the increasing availability of automated and advanced technologies such as automated endoscope reprocessors and e-beam sterilization are effective and cost-effective methods. These trending methods have significantly improved the efficiency and quality of end-user operations. These advanced technologies are designed to meet the high demand for quality sterilization and disinfection.
Based on end-users, the global market is bifurcated into hospitals and clinics, infection control service providers, ASCs, and others.
The hospitals and clinics segment owns the highest market share and is anticipated to exhibit a CAGR of 1.58% during the forecast period. The hospital and clinics segment dominates the global market and is witnessing steady growth in the forecasted period. Hospitals and clinics are the first point of care source to get tested and treated for any disease in other healthcare settings. The infections acquired in hospitals can originate from the outside environment, staff that may be infected, another infected patient, or the infection's source is unknown in a few cases. Sometimes, a patient contracts the infection from their own body, such as from the skin, mostly after undergoing surgical or other procedures, which is still considered HAI since it occurs within healthcare settings.
ASCs are specialized medical facilities that operate exclusively for outpatient surgical services to patients who do not need hospitalization for more than 24 hours. Many services performed in these facilities extend beyond procedures traditionally thought of as surgery. Endoscopy procedures, injections to treat chronic pain, and eye procedures account for approximately 70% of medical claims from ASCs. Following the completion of surgical procedures, many Ambulatory Surgical Centers (ASCs) commonly experience Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs), with surgical site infections particularly prevalent.
As per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, hospitals experience an estimated annual incidence of almost two million healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The probability of a patient acquiring an infection at a hospital is tenfold higher. Some of these infections are even fatal, whereas an ambulatory surgical care center has a 0.1% infection rate.