The global meningococcal vaccine market size was valued at USD 2.76 billion in 2022. It is estimated to reach USD 6.14 billion by 2031, growing at a CAGR of 9.3% during the forecast period (2023–2031).
Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is a bacterial infection caused by a Gram-negative coccus, Neisseria meningitidis, which includes a spectrum of conditions such as meningitis, bacteremia (meningococcemia), and bacteremia pneumonia. Although the incidence rate of meningococcal disease is low, it is associated with a high fatality of up to 50% if left untreated and often results in severe complications.
Meningococcal meningitis results in infection of the lining of the brain and spinal cord and possesses a high potential to cause large epidemics and endemics. The disease is transmitted through direct contact with droplets of respiratory or throat secretions from patients or asymptomatic carriers. Various serotypes of N. meningitidis are included in 12 serogroups, of which only five serogroups A, B, C, W, and Y, are responsible for most diseases worldwide. However, the circulation of these serogroups is highly unpredictable and varies over time across age groups and geographies. Vaccines for each of these serogroups are available in the market.
Immunization is achieved through vaccination, which helps strengthen immunity against the viruses in the body. Moreover, it helps to prevent epidemics, which can lead to massive destruction among communities. This has led to the active participation of governments across the world in introducing various vaccines under their national immunization programs. In addition, several countries have implemented immunization schedules for meningococcal vaccines, including dosage regimens for adults and kids. For instance, the MenA vaccine has been approved and implemented in almost 22 countries and is part of routine immunization in eight meningitis-belt countries. Thus, an upsurge in immunization programs propels the growth of the global market.
Recent advances in vaccine technology are now providing an opportunity to target new diseases. A wide array of new vaccination technologies have been introduced in the market ranging from targeted attenuation techniques of live pathogens to the delivery of biologically engineered protein and peptide antigens and viral vector and nucleic acid-based antigens. Many of these technologies have yielded promising results. A significant increase has been witnessed in spending on the development of vaccine technology, which is anticipated to fuel the market's growth further.
The lead time to produce a vaccine lot ranges from several months to three years, and the vaccine shelf life ranges from one to three years. One vaccine dose of meningococcal takes almost 6–36 months to be introduced. Overall, 12 of the 29 available products are manufactured by Chinese suppliers and are currently available only in China. The global demand for meningococcal vaccines was USD 172 million until 2019, and China is the largest market, accounting for 34% of global demand, primarily for polysaccharide products, which currently comprise 84% of China's demand. Thus, small players in China, such as Walvax Biotechnology Co., Ltd, Zhifei Laboratories Limited, and Hualan Bio, stockpile the vaccines for use in times of emergency or shortage. Without an increase in production, the available supply of vaccines will be insufficient to meet the growing demand triggered by a rise in serotypes and the minimal availability of vaccines. Therefore, the prolonged timeline required for introducing the vaccines restrains the growth of the global market.
An increase in healthcare spending owing to a rise in concern toward the cure and treatment of various bacterial infections and the introduction of cost-effective vaccinations are anticipated to contribute significantly toward the growth of the market. In addition, the surge in awareness regarding early prevention and vaccinations and a rise in physicians' preferences toward vaccinations are key factors expected to promote the demand for meningitis vaccines during the forecast period.
An increase in childbirths coupled with a high risk of infections due to the low immunity of infants, the high risk associated with meningitis, and a rise in awareness toward immunization are some of the factors that provide lucrative opportunities for meningitis vaccines across emerging markets. In addition, the population's surge in personal disposable income and the increase in healthcare spending in developing regions are expected to offer remunerative opportunities for expanding the global meningococcal vaccine market.
The global meningococcal vaccine market is segmented by vaccine serotype, vaccine type, and end-user.
Based on vaccine serotype, the global market is divided into MenACWY, MenB/BC, MenC, MenAC, and MenA.
The MenACWY segment is responsible for the largest market share and is anticipated to exhibit a CAGR of 11.5% throughout the forecast period. MenACWY is a quadrivalent vaccine that immunizes against four strains (A, C, W, and Y) of the meningococcal bacteria that cause IMD. It is administered by a single injection into the upper arm and is recommended for children's routine vaccination programs in countries such as the U.S., the U.K., and Australia. However, it is recommended for the adolescent population to get immunized with MenACWY. Moreover, due to the high transmission rate among young adults, it is gaining recommendations in several countries for getting a booster dose before joining a university. In addition, MenACYW is recommended for international travelers traveling to hyperendemic regions such as parts of the Middle East, Africa, and Latin America. For instance, Saudi Arabia necessitates vaccination with the quadrivalent vaccine MenACYW for international travelers to Mecca for Hajj.
The Meningitis C vaccine immunizes against the IMD caused by the serogroup C. MenC conjugate vaccine is actively used in around 16 countries. Its inclusion in routine immunization programs in several countries, such as the U.K., has led to a significant reduction in rates of MenC diseases. Recently in the African meningitis belt, an alarming increase has been witnessed in the incidence rate of MenC. The strain has further circulated in neighboring countries of the meningitis belt, and the population immunity has been low due to the acute shortage. The epidemic spread of such a hyper-invasive strain of MenC has instigated an acute demand for MenC vaccines, which is expected to provide substantial opportunities for expanding the MenC vaccine market.
The global market is bifurcated into conjugate, polysaccharide, and subcapsular vaccines based on the vaccine type.
The conjugate vaccine segment dominates the market and is projected to exhibit a CAGR of 10.0% over the forecast period. Conjugate vaccines combine a weak antigen with a potent antigen as a carrier to increase the immune system's response to the weak antigen. This vaccine is used in routine immunization schedules, preventive campaigns, and outbreak responses. This is attributed to the fact that these vaccines offer superior immunization over polysaccharide meningococcal vaccines. The key advantages of conjugate vaccine over polysaccharide vaccine include prolonged immunity and its ability to induce herd immunity. In addition, conjugate vaccines are indicated for use in infants and thus are gaining recommendations in national immunization programs.
The subcapsular vaccines include vaccines against serogroup B. The invention of the subcapsular protein variant of the vaccine was prompted by the restrictions, such as greater prices and scarcer raw resources, involved with generating MenB vaccines for the polysaccharide and conjugate type. MenB vaccines are indicated for use in individuals aged 10 through 25 years. Still, due to the high incidence of MenB in the U.K. and other regions, they have been included in the national immunization programs in the U.K. for the pediatric population of age group 8–16 weeks, with a booster at 12–13 months. GlaxoSmithKline has a vaccine product in its pipeline, Bexsero, for use in the infant population.
The global market is segmented into pediatric, adults, and travelers based on the end-user.
The pediatric segment owns the market and is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 9.8% during the forecast period. The pediatrics include toddlers and Infants (up to five years of age). Infants and children under five years old are at the most risk. The demand for vaccines is more in pediatrics due to the approval of booster doses in some the countries, such as the U.S. and Europe, which indicates that each newborn baby should take that vaccine for immunization. Conjugated vaccines exist for routine vaccination of infants and children, such as conjugate group C vaccine, conjugate groups A-C-Y-W135 vaccine, and Bexsero; however, these vaccines vary by country depending upon licensing and the national immunization programs.
People traveling from different countries and environments are easy targets for getting infected by new diseases and serve as the carrier of that particular viruses or bacteria. The meningitis belt in sub-Saharan Africa has a substantially higher disease prevalence rate; hence the CDC advises the meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY) vaccine for persons visiting or residing there. In these nations, the dry season is when the disease is most prevalent (December through June). The greatest danger of contracting an infection is for visitors who spend much time around the local population, particularly during outbreaks. Those who have received their initial vaccinations and are still at risk should get booster shots.
Based on region, the global meningococcal vaccine market is bifurcated into North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and LAMEA.
North America held the largest market share and is anticipated to grow at a CAGR of 9.2% during the forecast period. The crucial factors driving the market growth in North America are the rise in awareness about meningococcal vaccines among healthcare professionals and patients, the availability of well-developed healthcare infrastructure, and ease of product availability. In addition, the easy availability of meningococcal vaccines and their inclusion in routine vaccination programs fuel North America's market growth. Furthermore, a surge in outbreaks of various meningococcal serogroups such as MenC, MenB, and MenW is a crucial driver of the market growth in the region. For instance, following an outbreak of MenB at San Diego State University (SDSU), recently in 2019, SDSU announced that it would require all arriving students to be vaccinated against meningococcal serogroup B beginning with the fall 2019 semester. Therefore, the rise in outbreaks has led to a surge in demand for meningococcal vaccines in the region.
Europe is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 9.6% during the forecast period. The rise in awareness related to the use of meningococcal vaccines and the surge in the adoption of meningococcal vaccination in Europe fuel the growth of the meningococcal vaccine market. The European meningococcal market is expected to expand due to rising disease prevalence, an aging population, and increased demand for awareness campaigns. Moreover, the need for meningitis in the U.K., the Netherlands, France, and Germany is projected to exhibit significant market growth owing to increased demand for cost-effective vaccines such as Men ACYW, Men B/BC, and Men C/CY, which includes vaccine resistance, safety, and cost-effectiveness. Moreover, the region's presence of key players such as GlaxoSmithKline Plc., Pfizer, and Sanofi contribute toward the market's growth. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) approved an alternative 2+1 dosing schedule of GlaxoSmithKline Plc. for its Bexsero vaccine to protect infants against invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by serotype B (meningitis B). Furthermore, the increase in the adoption of meningococcal vaccines in the universal routine vaccination programs in the region is a significant factor that boosts market growth.
Asia-Pacific presents lucrative opportunities for players operating in the meningococcal vaccines market due to its high population base, disposable income increase, and awareness about meningococcal vaccines. Increased awareness of meningococcal infections, the ease of product availability, and an increase in meningococcal disease outbreaks are the main drivers driving the growth of the meningococcal vaccine market in Asia-Pacific. In addition, including meningococcal vaccines in routine vaccination programs fuels the market growth in the Asia Pacific. For instance, Australia recently 2019 included MenACWY conjugate vaccines in its routine immunization program for adolescents. In addition, China has included MenA and MenAC polysaccharide vaccines in its national immunization program (NIP). GlaxoSmithKline, Sanofi, Pfizer, BioMed, Serum Institute of India, and Walvax Biotechnology are the major Asian-Pacific players. Moreover, about nine products are in the product pipeline for the meningococcal vaccine from many key players in China, which is anticipated to provide significant opportunities for market expansion.
LAMEA stands for Latin America, the Middle East, and Africa. It is expected to exhibit high potential for growth during the forecast period due to an increase in healthcare awareness and development in healthcare infrastructure and immunization programs. The significant factors that drive the growth of the meningococcal vaccine market in LAMEA include an increase in understanding of meningococcal diseases, ease of product availability, and a surge in outbreaks of meningococcal illnesses. However, the Middle East is projected to register the fastest growth in the LAMEA meningococcal vaccine market due to higher healthcare spending.
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