The global pupillometer market size was valued at USD 343.51 million in 2022. It is estimated to reach USD 675.31 million by 2031, growing at a CAGR of 7.8% during the forecast period (2023–2031).
Pupillometers are widely used non-invasive, portable optical scanners for securely evaluating pupils. A pupillometer, also spelled pupilometer, is a medical instrument designed to measure the size of the eye's pupil using reflected light. Pupilometers are an erroneous term frequently used to describe some pupillary distance (PD) measuring devices. In addition to assessing pupil size, the pupillary light reflex may be characterized by the automated pupillometers in use today.
Pupillometers enable precise monocular measurement when refractive surgery or medication is performed on a patient with significant ametropia. It is frequently used when the exact lens and patient visual axes centration is required for high refractive and progressive addition glasses. The need for pupillometers, which measure pupil size, neuro papillary index, the percentage change in pupil size, and pupil constriction velocity, has significantly increased recently.
The main factors contributing to visual impairment and blindness worldwide are eye diseases like cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. The number of people with visual issues and blindness rises proportionately as the older population grows. In addition, lifestyle changes have increased the incidence of various diseases that cause visual impairment, such as diabetes and hypertension. As per a WHO report published in 2019, an estimated 2.2 million people suffer from eye disorders globally, of which 1 million cases could have been prevented or are still undiagnosed.
The most common types of eye disorders reported are presbyopia (826 million), refractive error (123.7 million), glaucoma (6.9 million), cataract (65.2 million), corneal opacities (4.2 million), trachoma (2 million), and diabetic retinopathy (3 million). The abovementioned statistics represent the overall eye disease burden globally, contributing to the growing demand for pupillometer machines. Moreover, ophthalmic disorders, such as childhood blindness, age-related macular degeneration, trachoma, corneal opacities, and onchocerciasis, are expected to witness the highest incidence over the forecast period.
Neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, dementia, stroke, and epilepsy, are the fifth major cause of death globally and cause 5.53% of deaths worldwide. According to WHO, the prevalence of comorbidities such as tension-type headaches, migraine, medication overuse headaches, and Alzheimer's disease, including other dementias, is 1505.9 million, 958.8 million, 58.5 million, and 46.0 million, respectively.
Global statistics indicate that the prevalence of epilepsy is around 50 million, cerebrovascular disease is around 62 million, migraine is around 326, and Alzheimer's disease and other dementias is around 24 million. As per WHO, the number of deaths due to neurological conditions in 2019 was 533,172, of which 40%, i.e., 213,129, were men and 60%, i.e., 320,043, were women. These conditions account for 32.9 deaths per 100,000 populations (age-standardized), 33.1 deaths per 100,000 in men, and 32.2 deaths per 100,000 in women. The abovementioned stats suggest that the prevalence of neurological disorders is growing, which is expected to fuel the growth of the pupillometer market.
Pupillometer is a device used to measure the distance between pupils through visual stimuli. However, measuring a child's pupillary distance is difficult, as their eyes usually converge when the machine is placed before them. This leads to the generation of inaccurate Pupillary Distance (PD) readings. Hence, capturing a kid's attention for a longer duration to measure PD can be challenging.
Furthermore, if the dispenser or patient cannot close the other eye while measuring PD, then PD measurement can be inaccurate. Strabismus (crossed eyes), a disease in which one eye is focused in a different direction compared to the other, poses a significant challenge for the pupillometer for measuring PD in strabismic patients. It is estimated that 4% of the U.S. population, or about 13 million people, have strabismus, thereby hampering the market growth.
Increasing government initiatives to create awareness about visual impairments is expected to boost the market over the forecast period. As per WHO, in 2017, the number of visually disabled people was 180 million worldwide, of which 40 million to 45 million were blind and could not function independently. They needed social and vocational support. An increase in the incidence of visual impairment also poses a social and economic problem, primarily in developing economies, where nine out of 10 people are visually impaired. China, sub-Saharan Africa, and India account for approximately 60% of the total.
Additionally, cataracts cause blindness in approximately half of all blind people. The remaining includes people suffering from trachoma, glaucoma, onchocerciasis, and other conditions affecting children. The increase in the general and geriatric population is the main reason for the high global burden of blindness, despite efforts to control the growing prevalence of trachoma. It was predicted that if extra precautions were not taken, the burden of blindness would treble globally by 2020, particularly in developing economies. For instance, a global movement called VISION 2020 aims to increase public and governmental awareness of the effects of blindness. The necessity for human and financial resources to eradicate blindness must be persuaded by international decision-makers and NGOs. Such government initiatives are expected to create opportunities for market growth.
The global market is bifurcated into mobility, type, application, and end-user.
Based on mobility, the global market is bifurcated into table-top and hand-held.
The table-top segment owns the highest market share and is predicted to exhibit a CAGR of 8.49% over the forecast period. Many pupillometers come with other devices, such as keratometers, pachymeters, wavefront aberrometer, and corneal topographers. These tools are used in conjunction with pupillometers, particularly tabletop pupillometers, and are installed in various settings, including hospitals. Market players like HAAG-STREIT GROUP, Johnson and Johnson Vision, and SCHWIND eye-tech solutions are developing combined tabletop pupillometer devices.
Based on type, the global market is divided into video and digital.
The video segment is the most significant contributor to the market and is estimated to exhibit a CAGR of 8.46% over the forecast period. Video pupillometers capture the entire activity of pupil dilation, which helps in understanding changes and the reasons associated with the change. NeurOptics—a company that deals in the science of pupillometry—has developed innovative technologies to help clinicians provide better patient care. The company has developed various video pupillometers for critical care and applied research. NPi-200 pupillometer is a video pupillometer developed by NeurOptics for critical care. This product has an infrared camera, processor, high-precision optics, and LED light source. The product's video feature helps capture the changes in pupil size and its reactivity over time.
Similarly, the VIP-300 pupillometer, PLR-3000 pupillometer, and DP-2000 are video pupillometers developed by NeurOptics, which are used for applied research. Some of these video pupillometers are hand-held, whereas some are table-top. These devices store data on pupil measurement, which can later be played or recalled on a screen. This helps increase clinicians' efficiency in capturing pupil movement, pupil size, and other changes in the pupil due to medication or disease.
Based on application, the global market is bifurcated into ophthalmology, neurology, oncology, and others.
The ophthalmology segment dominates the global market and is predicted to exhibit a CAGR of 8.61% during the forecast period. The ophthalmology segment held the biggest revenue share owing to the growing usage of pupillometry for checking pupil dilation, which helps assess retinal diseases. The pupillary light reflex helps in assessing the visual system's functionality. Pupillometry identifies differences in the response of melanopsin and cone/rod photoreceptors to understand damage on the outer and inner retina.
In addition, measuring pupil size helps refractive surgeons understand the after-effects of LASIK surgery. Patients with large pupils will likely have increased post-LASIK visual disturbances in scotopic conditions. Therefore, increasing the adoption of pupillometry in ophthalmic diagnostics is expected to drive segment growth.
Based on end-user, the global market is segmented into hospitals, eye clinics, and others.
The hospital segment is the largest contributor to the market and is projected to exhibit a CAGR of 8.50% over the forecast period. The hospital segment held the most significant revenue share owing to the increasing adoption of pupillometers in hospitals. Pupillometers developed by NeurOptics have been adopted by more than 400 hospitals across the U.S., thereby contributing to segment growth. In addition, the growing usage of pupillometers in critical care units is also expected to boost segment growth. NeurOptics pupillometers are used in critical care units such as neurocritical care, medical intensive care, emergency department, and cardiac intensive care.
Based on region, the global market is bifurcated into North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East and Africa.
North America is the most significant global pupillometer market shareholder and is predicted to exhibit a CAGR of 8.5% over the forecast period. North America held the largest revenue share, having a highly regulated and well-developed healthcare infrastructure. The growing collective efforts of key players to improve their product portfolios and ensure high-quality standards are expected to boost the demand for pupilometer across this region. The growing presence of prominent market players, such as J&J Vision, NeurOptics, Inc., and Konan Medical, in the U.S. has contributed to the country's leading market share. The presence of key players ensures the rapid availability of advanced technologies in the region. In addition, the U.S. accounted for the largest share of the North American pupillometer market. The increasing prevalence of eye-related issues is estimated to be a major factor affecting market growth in this country. According to the WHO, around 12 million people aged 40 years and above in the U.S. have vision impairment. Favorable reimbursement regulations are also expected to boost market growth further. The healthcare reimbursement system in the U.S. covers around 84% of the population with either public (26%) or private (70%) health insurance, fueling the market expansion.
Europe is estimated to exhibit a CAGR of 8.7% over the forecast period. The increasing prevalence of vision problems is anticipated to increase the demand for pupillometers in Europe. For instance, as per the Euro Blind Organization (EBU), an average of 1 in 30 Europeans experience sight loss each year. Developed healthcare infrastructure and favorable reimbursement scenarios have augmented the pupillometer's implementation in Europe. For instance, according to the European External Action Service (EEAS), around USD 4.7 million was invested by the European government to boost healthcare infrastructure during FY 2016. In addition, Germany dominated the regional market. Germany's pupillometer market is mainly driven by the high prevalence of vision problems, which heightened the demand for pupilometer devices in the country. It has been a prominent location for developing, producing, and selling pupillometer devices.
In Asia-Pacific, many factors, including ongoing advances in India and China and well-developed healthcare infrastructure in nations like Japan, can be credited for the market expansion. Most of the countries in the region are emerging economies and moving toward faster adoption of technologically advanced devices. Major multinational companies investing in R&D in countries like India and China expedite the regional market. With the increasing prevalence of eye disorders in the APAC region, governments are focusing on supporting diagnostics and treatment procedures that reduce the rate of disease progression and aid early diagnosis. In addition, vision instruments, such as pupillometer, are also applicable in therapeutic areas such as cardiology, neurology, and oncology, and the rising prevalence of these diseases in the Asia-Pacific region is aiding the growth of the market.
In Latin America, the market growth can be attributed to factors like the presence of major players, increasing investments by hospitals for adopting novel medical devices, and the growing use of advanced technologies. The medical devices industry in Latin America is highly fragmented, with multiple small distributing companies providing easy access to the devices. Furthermore, the pupillometer market is expected to grow more due to the large patient pool and increasing eye disorders, such as refractive errors, myopia, and presbyopia. Besides the coverage, this region's GDP and healthcare expenditure are also important factors contributing to the market's growth. Hence, the growing prevalence of refractive disorders, high coverage, and growing healthcare expenditure and GDP are expected to propel the pupillometer market growth in this region.
Middle Eastern countries such as Saudi Arabia, South Africa, and United Arab Emirates (UAE) are prospering economies. Advancements in the healthcare system are expected to increase the demand for pupilometer devices in this region. On the contrary, some countries in the African region lack healthcare infrastructure. However, countries are taking initiatives in coordination with the WHO or other independent organizations to develop advanced treatment facilities.
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