5G has brought fast broadband speeds, higher efficiencies, massive scalability, all at significantly lower costs. Nano Satellites will be an important part of the next generation 5G communication network. They are small-sized,low weight, and low cost satellites that are launched in low circular or elliptical orbits of altitudes between 400 and 650 km and travel at around 8 km per second providing optimum conditions for ground monitoringand communications. 5G is integrating satellites into mainstream to achieve full interoperability within the end-to-end 5G network. The future satellite and terrestrial mobile communication systems are anticipated to use frequency resources and a unified resource coordination platform. Rise of Software Defined Network (SDN) Technology, Cloud Computing, Mobile Edge Computing, and Dynamic Network Virtualizationare expected to enhance the role of nano satellites in 5G in the years to come. Because of its massive data growth rates,the mobile industry is hungry for more of the radio spectrum. 5G is providing the ultimate opportunity to offer a much wider range of services, while leveraging satellite connectivity to expand their coverage areas.
Use Cases of nano satellites and 5G
Connected Vehicles–SpaceInternetwill offer its navigation and monitoring features to observe automated crash notifications, vehicle breakdown notifications, traffic information andinfotainment services, among others. eCall(emergency call) is the first regulated service connecting all vehicles tomobile communication networks and capable of geo-location tracking. Internet ofThings (IoT) backed by satellite 5G networks will contribute to collect additional data, by vehicles and traffic management centers. This data can be exchanged on the internet to develop new services for vehicle users
Agriculture Analytics- The main advantage of Nano Satellites and 5G networks in the Agriculture sector is earth observation through satellite communication and global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) technologies. This will assist farm owners and growers in estimating the timing of harvest, predicting in-season yields, detecting and controlling pests and disease, understanding water and nutrient status, planning crop nutrition programmes and informing in-season irrigation. Developments in satellite constellations coupled with smart computing and data analytics are enabling increased connectivity and observational capability across the agricultural sector
Security and Defense –Military communications operate under an umbrella of heterogeneous networks that enable the provision of interoperable voice, video and data services according to security policies, and transmission requirements. Software defined architecture, nano-satellite communications-wireless network integration and voice and data/video exchange in an increasingly complex environment will enhance military communications systems in the upcoming years
Weather Forecast and Observation – Low earth Orbit satellites can gather crucial weather information and climate data transmitted over radio frequencies by 5G equipment.Accurate data helps the meteorologists to forecast storms, hurricanes, typhoons and cyclones and their intensities. Wrong or inaccurate information due to interference of noise in weather signals can make the predictions go wrong by hundreds of kilometers. Therefore, to keep the signals from interfering with one another, researchers are proposingthe use of observation and navigation results from low orbit or miniature satellites in space