The global animal model market size was valued at USD 2,502.48 million in 2021. It is expected to reach USD 2,676.80 million by 2030, growing at a CAGR of 6.10% during the forecast period (2022–2030). An animal model is an animal used for biological and pathological research and testing. Animal models are used because of the human body and their functional similarities. These models are used to study the development and advancement of various diseases and test new treatment methods before conducting human trials. However, animal welfare guidelines are to be followed while animal models are used for experiments. Rats, mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits are among the animals utilized as animal models.
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Rising Usage of Animal Models in Virology and Infectious Diseases
Three viral outbreaks have occurred in the last two decades: SARS-CoV in 2002, MERS-CoV in 2012, and SARS-CoV-2 in 2019. SARS-CoV-2 is far worse than SARS-CoV in 2002 and has spread to 213 countries, impacting millions of people. The 2019 appearance of COVID-19 prompted the use of animal models to understand its pathogenesis and create viable treatments. Aside from COVID-19 research, the mice model is ideal for hepatitis C virus (HCV), Zika virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Johns Hopkins University estimates that COVID-19 has killed 3.7 million individuals. Mouse models are frequently used in viral research because of their ease of use and high repeatability. As a result, animal models in virology and infectious diseases encourage market growth.
Increasing Adoption of CRISPR Technology
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) is a time-saving, easy-to-perform technique as it enables quick, cost-effective animal model creation. It enables the development of mutant mouse models that were previously impossible to create using traditional methods. This method has resulted in developing knock-in and knock-out animal models for drug testing. It allows quick generation of mice with single point mutations or conditional alleles, mimicking human patients in weeks. This technology is the primary tool for studying gene function and genetic modification in vivo.
Increasing Regulations and Rules Governing the Ethical Use of Animals in Research
Implementing animal protection and welfare legislation has restricted animal use as many nations forbid animal testing in cosmetics. Australia prohibited animal test data for cosmetics in 2019. In 2018, Minas Gerais banned cosmetic animal experiments, and Sri Lanka passed an animal protection law. National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded institutes must follow Public Health Service (PHS) guidelines on laboratory animal usage (ILAR). Research institutions should seek the Association for Assessment & Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International (AAALAC) to enhance financing. Complying with mandatory rules for animal models may be complex and time-consuming, which may limit the market expansion.
Growth Opportunities in Emerging Markets
Unexplored, expanding territories, improved healthcare infrastructure, and rising pharmaceutical and medical device sectors are expected to drive expansion in the animal model industry. Rising demand for advanced manufacturing technologies and government expenditures to modernize healthcare facilities are boosting the healthcare industry in emerging nations. Patent expiration and higher demand drive growth in India, China, and Japan. Asian nations have improved pharmacology via animal studies and rich resources, which is expected to boost the market.
The global animal model market is segmented into animal type, application, and end-user.
Based on animal type, the market is classified into rats, mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits.
The rat segment holds the highest market share and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 6.0% during the forecast period. Rats have several traits making them good animal models. It has a tiny size, short generation period, similarity to human diseases, known genetic background, and known microbial status. Their tractability makes them easier to manage in labs than many rodent kinds. Rats are used as study models in genetics, immunology, infectious illness, neurology, metabolic disorders, nutrition, and behavior and are also utilized in drug discovery, effectiveness, and toxicity investigations. The rat is a good model for cardiovascular disease, especially stroke and hypertension. Major animal model market drivers include increased use of rat models to study complex disorders, biomedical research to understand health issues, advancements in gene editing tools, growth in personalized medicine, government support in the form of investments and grants, and increased use of rat models in drug development.
Mice mimic human diseases and are used as animal models due to their tiny size, short reproductive cycle and lifetime, agreeable disposition, and understanding of biology, genetics, and physiology. Scientists also employ mouse models to understand human behavioral, nutritional, aging, sensory, and hereditary issues. The rise in mouse clinical trials (MCTs) for more predictive outcomes, ongoing innovations in mice models, the surge in usage of mice models in virology and infectious diseases, demand for humanized mice models, demand for personalized medicine, and government and non-government investments drive market growth.
Guinea pigs are employed in gastroenterology, neonatology, infectious illness, immunology, neurology, and toxicology studies because they mimic human physiology, metabolism, and genetics. These models help optimize therapy and practice by testing techniques, intervention, and setting. Guinea pigs are great for clinical testing of diseases like Asthma, Alzheimer's, cholesterol metabolism, fetal/placental development, and delivery are researched. CRLI, Envigo, and Specipig manufacture pig models. Guinea pigs are also a valuable preclinical model for medical research, which might improve product demand.
Based on application, the market is classified into drug discovery and development, basic research, and others.
Drug discovery and development is predicted to hold the highest market share, growing at a CAGR of 6.6% during the forecast period. Animal models in pharmaceutical research and development have improved disease understanding. Rats, mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits are used to study diseases and test new treatments before they are tested on humans. According to Taconic Biosciences, 38% of drug discovery mouse models are outbred. Target selection and validation, lead molecule identification and optimization, and preclinical safety and efficacy testing are all standard processes in drug development. Drug discovery approaches include CRISPR/Cas9, recombination, and transgenesis. Animal models are increasingly used in pharmacological research and development, novel product creation, and preclinical and toxicity testing, driving market expansion.
Basic research solves practical problems via scientific and medical research, cures illnesses, and develops new technology. The goal of basic research in medicine and biology is to discover what causes people and animals to be healthy. This research contributes to a better understanding of how healthy organs and tissues function and what goes wrong in sickness. Basic research typically informs applied research that leads to novel medications. Government investment in medical research institutions for research and creation of standard protocols related to animal models, rise in cancer, cardiovascular and autoimmune illnesses, and increased adoption of animal models for different research investigations boost the segment's growth.
Based on end-user, the market is classified into pharma and biotech companies, academic research companies, and others.
The pharma and biotech companies are predicted to hold the highest market share, growing at a CAGR of 6.7% during the forecast period. Companies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries test their products on animals before creating new drugs. These companies provide animal models for osteoarthritis and cardiomyopathy, and other diseases. Preclinical endeavors, business development, technological advancements in animal models, and the use of humanistic mouse models for preclinical translational research all contribute to the rise in the number of new products developed by pharmaceutical and biotechnology businesses.
Academic research institutes use animal models in microbiology, molecular biology, rDNA technology, and molecular genetics. These institutions conduct several functional studies. The increased use of animal models in academic research institutes, R&D on medicinal treatments, and genetic diseases drive the academic research institutions sector. Animal models may help comprehend the chronic illness and determine therapeutic effectiveness. Academic research institutions require additional animal models as a result of these factors.
North America Dominates the Global Animal Model Market
The global animal model market is divided into five regions, namely North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East and Africa.
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North America is the most significant global animal model market shareholder and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 6.2% during the forecast period. The US held the highest portion of North America's revenue. Prominent enterprises such as Horizon Discovery, The Jackson Laboratory, and Crown Bioscience Inc are a few market players dominating North America's animal model market. Growth in the industry is driven by increased government and non-government financing for pharmacological development, viral infections, and animal models. The growing use of animal models in biomedical, neurological, genetic, toxicological, cancer, physiological, and research contributes to North America's regional dominance.
Europe is predicted to grow at a CAGR of 5.5%, generating USD 712 million during the forecast period. Due to the rising demand and establishment of companies like GenOway S.A., EUROFINS SCIENTIFIC, JANVIER LABS, and PolyGene, the European animal model market is expected to rise. The European Union's measures to improve animal welfare and usage of animal models in R&D help the industry. Novel pharmaceutical research, animal testing to ensure drug safety, pharma and biotech R&D, and preclinical trials support Europe's growth. The desire for precision medicine, understanding diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and more, and using CRISPR technology are other market drivers.
Asia-Pacific is predicted to have the fastest market growth resulting from government support, efforts, and investment in medication R&D employing animal models. The availability of modern healthcare systems, the significant increase in demand for cutting-edge healthcare facilities, the rise in preclinical activities by CROs and pharmaceutical companies in the region, the rise in mouse clinical trials (MCTs) for further predicting results, the ongoing improvements in animal models, the availability of modern healthcare systems, and more are significant drivers of market expansion.
Latin America, the Middle East and Africa are expanding markets predicted to present attractive development possibilities for significant players due to an increase in the target population, increased use of animal models in virology and infectious illnesses, and improved healthcare infrastructure. Increased incidence of chronic illnesses and government engagement in research institutions in LAMEA drive the usage of animal models, propelling market expansion.