The global animal vaccine market size was worth USD 9,588 million in 2021. It is expected to grow at a CAGR of 5.6% by 2030 to reach USD 15,567 million during the forecast period (2022–2030). Animal vaccination is immunizing a domestic, livestock, or wild animal. The profession is associated with veterinary medicine. These vaccines boost an animal's immune system without actually causing the disease. When healthy animals are immunized, their immune systems respond to the vaccine and remember the infectious agent they were vaccinated against. Therefore, if vaccinated animals are subjected to pathogens against which they have been vaccinated, they can be protected against disease. Vaccines for animals are necessary to improve the animals' well-being and reduce their owners' financial losses. By their mode of action, attenuated and subunit vaccines are beneficial for disease prevention. Vaccines for animals are environmentally friendly products that reduce the use of antibiotics and the likelihood of drug-resistant microorganisms. They protect animal health by immunizing animals against a specific disease.
Vaccines for animals play an essential role in protecting animal and public health, ensuring the efficacy of food animal productivity to feed a growing human population. Vaccines for animals have also diminished the dangers of antibiotic overuse to food and companion animals. Veterinary vaccinations significantly impact public health by eradicating zoonotic diseases transmitted from animals to humans. Vaccinating domestic and wild animals against rabies has significantly eliminated human rabies in developed nations. New vaccines, like gene-deleted marker vaccines, virus-like-particle vaccines, recombinant modified live virus vaccines, chimeric vaccines, and DNA vaccines, have resulted from advances in genetic engineering technology. For the efficient control of animal diseases, widespread use of animal vaccines is required, and vaccines must be accessible at reasonable prices. Vaccine technological advancements contribute to a decrease in the price of veterinary vaccines.
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The global increase in pet ownership has significantly impacted the animal vaccines market. Companion animals play an essential role in enhancing the quality of life by positively influencing human health, thereby improving their physical well-being. The majority of families view their pets as members; consequently, there has been a significant increase in pet ownership in many world regions.
According to Animal Medicines Australia Pty Ltd., in 2019, there were nearly 29 million pets in Australia. In addition, a rise in disposable income in countries such as India has led to an increase in pet ownership in recent years. In addition, there has been an increase in public awareness regarding animal health. Consequently, this increases the demand for veterinary medicines, which fuels the expansion of the animal vaccines market globally.
Companion animals such as dogs and cats are susceptible to fatal diseases, necessitating early diagnosis and treatment. Contagious and infectious diseases are the most prevalent disorders among livestock and companion animals. Infectious diseases like canine distemper are highly contagious and can spread through the air to other companion animals. In addition, some of the diseases that affect livestock include foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). The high incidence of this disease has increased the consumption of vaccines to enhance financial and health quality of life for both humans and animals. Consequently, the rise in the incidence of diseases among livestock and companion animals is anticipated to drive the market for animal vaccines.
Post-vaccination adverse reactions include anaphylaxis, systemic reaction, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, respiratory disease, and sarcoma. These side effects necessitate the animal's admission, increasing the owners' expenses. In addition, the consumption of animal products by humans, which increases the risk of animal disease transmission to humans, is expected to impede the use of animal vaccines. Different routes of vaccine administration in animals expose humans to bacterial or viral strains, thereby increasing the likelihood of adverse effects. For example, aerosol administration of animal vaccines or oral administration of live attenuated vaccines can augment vaccine exposure. These detrimental consequences raise concerns among animal owners, reducing their preference for vaccination.
Vaccination contributes significantly to the management of animal health. Research organizations and animal healthcare businesses ensure that animals are in good health. Currently, research is being conducted on the development of plant-based veterinary vaccines. To develop these vaccines, plants are used as production centers to obtain the necessary proteins. These plants serve as antigen repositories for vaccines. Vaccines derived from plants frequently produce subunit vaccines.
Using plants as production centers for vaccines has numerous advantages over mammalian cell systems. Compared to the use of mammalian cell systems, the production cost in plants is minimal. For instance, producing identical proteins in plants is 10 to 50 times lower than in microbial systems. In addition, the processing of proteins in plants is safer, as there is less risk of pathogenic microorganisms or prions contaminating the vaccines. The development of vaccine production is anticipated to boost the animal vaccines market's expansion prospects.
Lockdowns on a national scale, government regulations, and a persistent rise in infection rates in numerous countries have substantially impacted veterinary care facilities. Due to COVID-19, many hospitals and clinics saw a decline in veterinary patient visits, thereby reducing client contact. Diverse veterinary organizations worldwide suggested limiting patient care to acutely ill animals and emergencies, rescheduling annual exams and elective procedures such as vaccinations, and limiting the number of elective courses. Consequently, this factor slowed the growth rate of the animal vaccines market during the initial months of the lockdown. Furthermore, the pandemic reduced the bargaining power of farm and pet owners.
In addition, several manufacturers experienced setbacks as the market growth rate slowed due to the pandemic outbreak and supply chain disruptions. In contrast, the recovery from the pandemic in the first few months of 2021 presented new opportunities for the animal vaccines market. Further, the increase in the number of COVID-19 infections in animals alarmed veterinary organizations around the globe, prompting them to test samples from domesticated and companion animals for the virus. This greatly facilitated the use of these animals for experimental testing of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine for animals, which provided a valuable model for screening vaccines.
Based on type, the classification of the animal vaccine market share is done as Attenuated Vaccines, Inactivated Vaccines, Subunit Vaccines, Toxoid Vaccines, Conjugate Vaccines, Recombinant Vaccines, and DNA Vaccines.
The attenuated vaccine is expected to be the largest segment by type, accounting for USD 5,261 million at a CAGR of 4.8% during the forecast period. Attenuated vaccines consist of live viruses whose virulence factor has been reduced so that they cannot cause disease in animals. Due to the availability of advanced technology, specific mutations or deletions of virus genes can be introduced. As attenuated vaccines are more effective at stimulating the immune systems of animals and providing longer-lasting protection, numerous companies and research institutes develop them to prevent various animal diseases.
Due to their numerous advantages, attenuated vaccines are the most significant contributor to the market's growth. The humoral and cellular immune systems are stimulated by attenuated vaccines, resulting in stronger and longer-lasting immunity. In addition, these vaccines require fewer booster doses than other vaccines, thereby reducing the cost of vaccination. They do not demand adjuvants to stimulate the immune system effectively. Further, since they can be administered intranasally or intraocularly, these vaccines can induce secretory immunity. In addition, these vaccines can generate herd immunity as the animal is protected from the disease and can prevent its spread.
Based on animal type, the classification of the animal vaccine market is done as Companion Animal, Livestock Animal, and Aquaculture.
Livestock animal vaccines are expected to command a market share of USD 9,865 million at a CAGR of 5.6% during the forecast period. Farm animals typically raised by their owners to make a profit are referred to as livestock. For instance, these animals are nurtured in sanctuaries that meet their prerequisites and requirements to be cared for appropriately. They assist in producing various goods, including meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool. Vaccination of livestock is carried out to protect the animals from multiple infections and treat several distinct medical conditions. Cattle, pigs, poultry, sheep, and other species are the most common livestock animals. Both a rise in the incidence of various infectious diseases among livestock animals and a surge in awareness related to the importance of immunization are significant factors contributing to the segment's growth.
Region-wise, the global animal vaccine market share is classified across North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East and Asia.
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The region of North America is likely to dominate the market with the largest share of USD 5,349 million at a CAGR of 5% during the forecast period. This is attributable to established veterinary organizational structures and people's desire to protect animal health. Significant progress has been made in manufacturing vaccine technology, particularly the rabies vaccine. There are crescendos in research involving the production of appropriate antigens using fermentation technology and continuous cell lines as substrate in the region.
Vaccines derived from inactivated cell cultures are used to immunize dogs. These vaccines are readily available at a reasonable price due to vaccine technology's constant advancement and innovation. In addition, an increase in pet ownership in the region and a rise in awareness regarding companion animal health fuel the market's expansion. As presented in a survey conducted by the American Pet Products Association, 62% of US households had pets in 2011–2012, which accounted for approximately 72.9 million households. The number significantly incremented to 68% of households by 2018, which accounted for about 84.6 million homes.
The region of Europe is expected to be the second-largest region, growing at a CAGR of 5.7% to reach USD 4,638 million by 2030. Europe is renowned for its extensive scientific research, innovation, and development in animal health. The rise in pet ownership in Europe is one factor driving the expansion of the European animal vaccines market. According to the European Pet Food Industry Federation (FEDIAF), an estimated 80 million European households had at least one pet animal in 2017. Cats are widely adopted as companion animals in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom, among other European nations. Consequently, an increase in the adoption of companion animals in Europe and an increase in the awareness of animal health fuel the expansion of the market.
Moreover, emerging diseases and stringent regulations observed in the sustainability of livestock contribute significantly to the expansion of the market for animal vaccines in Europe. European pharmacopeia has formulated several rules concerning the correct dosage of vaccines. Each batch of manufactured vaccines must undergo efficacy testing, consisting of tests demonstrating their appropriate potency and safety. These regulations ensure the efficient administration of veterinary vaccines, thereby increasing their use for disease prevention.