The global cell culture market size was valued at USD 22.67 billion in 2021 and is projected to reach USD 67.34 billion by 2030 at a CAGR of 12.86% from 2022 to 2030. Cell culture is defined as the process of removing cells from a plant or animal source and then growing them under controlled conditions (in vitro). In addition, this artificial environment contains nutrients, such as ideal temperature, gases, pH, and humidity, that are necessary for the growth and proliferation of the cells. Before cultivation, tissues can be stripped of their cells either mechanically or enzymatically. Additionally, the cells to be grown may be derived from an established cell line or cell strain.
There are numerous tools and machines utilized in the production of cell cultures. These machines are referred to as instruments, and various types of chemicals are also utilized in the production of cell culture. These chemicals are referred to as consumables because they are consumed during the process. Substrate or medium, growth factors, hormones, gases, and a regulated physicochemical environment are required for cell culture.
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New virus outbreaks are more likely to occur as a result of population growth, climate change, and increased human-animal contact. Influenza and COVID-19, for example, have proven to be unpredictable and recurrent threats that impose a substantial economic and social burden. The World Health Organization (WHO) has confirmed 386.55 million cases of COVID-19, including 5.71 million deaths, as of February 4, 2022. The global demand for vaccines is anticipated to be driven by the escalating prevalence of infectious diseases and the risk of pandemics. Cell culture has become an integral part of vaccine production in the pharmaceutical industry. Vaccines for rotavirus, polio, smallpox, hepatitis, rubella, and chickenpox have been manufactured utilizing cell culture technology. In the United States and many European nations, cell-based influenza vaccines are also authorized for use. Increasing awareness of the benefits of cell culture-based vaccines and the regulatory approval of a number of cell culture-based vaccines worldwide are expected to be the major factors driving the growth of the cell culture market during the forecast period.
Positively, support for gene and cell therapy has increased among various global regulatory groups. The United States, Europe, the United Kingdom, China, and Japan were rumored to be engaged in a "race to the bottom" in various ways and to varying degrees within their respective specializations. It appears that regulatory authorities have become more receptive and collaborative in recognizing the distinctions between cell and gene therapy and more established biopharma cancer treatments. They are willing to put in place the necessary regulatory mechanism to allow these drugs to reach the market and monitor them in the future. Consequently, it is anticipated that favorable government support will also spur market expansion.
A significant portion of cell biology is devoted to the research and development of new therapies, such as stem cell and gene therapies. Equipment, reagents, and other research-related products must be of the highest quality for accurate results. The cost of cell biology research has increased significantly due to the growing need to maintain high-quality standards (via the use of high-grade products) and comply with guidelines established by regulatory bodies. As a result, academic institutions and small businesses with limited budgets are unable to conduct cell biology research. Because microcarriers have applications in stem cell biology, this factor is likely to impede market expansion. In addition, because microcarriers adhere to cells, it is necessary to harvest the cells, which increases the costs of downstream processing. This is likely to restrain the growth of the market for cell culture.
Due to a variety of factors, 3D cell cultures are gaining popularity over 2D cell cultures. Using 2D cell culture techniques, cells are grown as 2D monolayers on flat surfaces. Nonetheless, these cells adhere only to cell culture vessels and attach only to cells at the periphery, limiting multidimensional cell cultures. To solve these problems, scientists have developed 3D cell cultures. In numerous studies of fundamental biological mechanisms, such as cell number monitoring, cell viability, cell proliferation, and cell morphology, these cultures have proven to be effective. Additionally, 3D cell cultures have greater stability and longer lifespans than 2D cultures. Numerous investors have been attracted to the 3D cell culture market by its numerous advantages. Lonza and CELLINK collaborated in June of 2020 to offer a 3D bioprinting solution designed to advance comprehensive 3D cell culture workflows. Corning, Inc. added two new 3D culture products, a 3D cell culture microplate, and an organoid culture matrix, to its cell culture product portfolio in October 2019. In addition, there has been an increase in interest in products such as microfluidic organ-on-a-chip models, which are 3D microfluidic cell culture chips designed to simulate the physiology of an organ. In the microchip's chambers, 3D cells are grown in scaffolds. Various 3D cell culture startups are receiving funding from venture capitalists to accelerate the marketing and distribution of their products. In May 2019, for example, Kiyatec Inc. (US) received USD 3 million in Series 2 funding for the development of ex vivo 3D culture technology to model and detect cancer patients' responses to drug therapies. In May of 2019, TreeFrog Therapeutics (France) secured USD 8.6 million in a Series A funding round for C-Stem, a 3D cell culture system used for mass-producing stem cells with short lead times and genomic integrity. In June of 2018, InSphero AG (Switzerland) raised USD 10 million in its most recent funding round from internal and external investors, bringing its total funding to date to USD 35 million. InSphero is a pioneering provider of 3D cell-based platforms for drug discovery and effectiveness testing. These efforts by investors and market participants are anticipated to present market participants with significant growth opportunities in the coming years.
The global market for cell culture is segmented by product, application, end-user, and region. The market is divided by-products into instruments and consumables. Serums, media, reagents, and bioreactor accessories constitute the consumables segment.
Additionally, the instruments segment is subdivided into bioreactors, cell culture vessels, cell culture storage equipment, and cell culture auxiliary instruments. Currently, on the basis of product, the consumables segment is the largest contributor to revenue, and it is anticipated to grow substantially over the forecast period. This is attributable to the repeated acquisition of consumables and the increase in funding for cell-based research.
In terms of end-user, the Pharmaceutical & Biotechnology Companies segment holds the largest share of the cell culture market due to the expansion of major pharmaceutical companies and the increasing regulatory approvals for the production of cell culture-based vaccines.
The market is segmented by application into stem cell technology, cancer research, drug screening and development, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, and other categories. By end-user, the market is segmented into research institutions, pharmaceutical and biotechnology firms, and others.
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The market for cell culture is currently dominated by North America, and this trend is anticipated to continue over the forecast period. This is primarily attributable to the increasing demand for personalized medicine and the presence of major market players. In addition, the United States government is supportive of medical research because healthcare is one of the country's top priorities. In 2016, the Human Cancer Models Initiative was announced, with the objective of producing 1,000 new cell lines for scientists to study within three years. Involved in the initiative were the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) in Bethesda, Maryland, Cancer Research UK, the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute UK, and Hubrecht Organoid Technology of Utrecht, the Netherlands.
FBS is the most widely used growth supplement for cell culture because it supports the survival and growth of numerous cell lines in a cost-effective manner. In response to the risk of contamination, the FDA has imposed a number of requirements on the production process. In addition, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) released their first official policy document on the joint regulation of cell-cultured meat in 2019. With the increased emphasis on cell-based research, it is anticipated that there will be more technological advancements in the field, which will likely have a positive effect on the US market.
The global cell culture market is highly competitive and is comprised of a number of significant players. The market is currently dominated by a small number of major players in terms of market share. The presence of significant market participants, such as Thermo Fisher Scientific, Danaher Corporation, and Sartorius AG, among others, is intensifying the market's overall competitiveness. In October 2019, Thermo Fisher Scientific will release the first cell culture media that can be stored at room temperature without losing its stability. Major players' advancements in their products and enhancements to their cell culture platforms are intensifying competition.
The key market players are Becton, Dickinson and Company, Corning Incorporated, Eppendorf, Sartorius AG, Merck KGaA, Lonza Group AG, and PromoCell GmbH, Danaher Corporation, Thermo Fisher Scientific, and HiMedia Laboratories.