The global human identification market size was valued at USD 642.23 million in 2022. It is estimated to reach USD 1,731.48 million by 2031, growing at a CAGR of 11.65% during the forecast period (2023–2031).
The global human identification market is primarily boosted by the surging demand for reducing the time and cost required for DNA analysis. The grant, funding, and various programs by governments worldwide are expected to bring innovative DNA analysis technologies and products into the market in the coming period and boost market growth. Human identification is a technique used to analyze deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples for forensic investigation and the identification of individuals. It includes body part detectors that aid in detecting the lips, face, heads, shoulders, fingerprints, and palms. It also employs next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), rapid DNA analysis, capillary electrophoresis, and nucleic acid purification and extraction.
Human identification is utilized extensively in many contexts, including but not limited to identifying criminals, analyzing human characteristics, identifying missing persons and victims of war and natural disasters, and determining the cause and manner of death. It also helps track down individual criminal records, identify traces, and make decisions regarding pardons.
|Market Size||USD 1,731.48 million by 2031|
|Fastest Growing Market||Europe|
|Largest Market||North America|
|Report Coverage||Revenue Forecast, Competitive Landscape, Growth Factors, Environment & Regulatory Landscape and Trends|
Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, has significantly advanced criminal justice over the last decade. When biological evidence is available, DNA can be used to identify criminals with incredible accuracy. Overall, DNA technology is becoming increasingly important in assuring the accuracy and fairness of the criminal judicial system, thereby increasing demand for reducing the time and cost of DNA analysis.
With the availability of rapid DNA analysis techniques, its demand increased, thereby boosting the market. For instance, in January 2022, a research team led by Stanford set the first Guinness World Record for the quickest DNA sequencing technique, which sequenced the human genome in 5 hours and 2 minutes. Thus, the availability and accessibility of rapid DNA testing are anticipated to drive its demand and boost market growth.
Governments worldwide increased their support for the field owing to the potential and surging demand for human identification in various industries. For instance, in November 2020, the government allocated USD 3.594 million for an Australian-first forensic program to resolve long-term missing person cases. Reece Kershaw, Commissioner of the Australian Federal Police, launched the National DNA Program for Unidentified and Missing Persons at Canberra's AFP's Forensics Complex.
Additionally, according to the Government of India, in 2020, the Department of Biotechnology formulated "The DNA Technology Regulation Bill 2019" to identify victims, missing persons, offenders, and unknown deceased persons. The bills possess the provision to establish national and regional DNA data banks to identify the abovementioned category of persons. Such initiatives by the Indian government to improve the application of DNA analysis in forensic laboratories are expected to boost the market during the forecast period.
The complexity of techniques and high costs associated with procuring instruments make it impossible for most academic institutes and laboratories working on or researching cancer to do genomic research, especially in underdeveloped and developing countries that are expected to impede the growth of the gene synthesis market during the forecast period. For instance, as per the article published by Album, a simple PCR machine-like Bio-Rad T100 thermal cycler has a list price of USD 4912 as of January 30, 2019. The cost of RT-PCR systems ranges from USD 15,000 for some RotorGene models to over 90,000 USD for QuantStudio 12K, thus restraining the market growth.
Rapid technological advancements are expected to result in the developing of new and advanced strategies for the human identification system. The market studied is growing due to various advanced technologies that led to the adoption of the devices by the target population. For instance, in August 2020, Quest Diagnostics launched the Automated Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) Engine to power AncestryHealth. Innovation in advanced genetic sequencing automation enables individuals to access highly accurate genetic testing, providing insights into inherited diseases, including cancers of the colon, breast, and other conditions, through AncestryHealth.
In addition, in June 2021, QIAGEN NV reported a commercialization collaboration with San Diego-based human identification specialist Verogen to offer customers of both companies superior tools and extensive support for human identification (HID) workflows in laboratories. Such developments are anticipated to create opportunities for market growth over the forecast period.
Based on region, the global human identification market is bifurcated into North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South America, and the Middle East and Africa.
North America is the most significant global human identification market shareholder and is anticipated to exhibit a CAGR of 10.97% during the forecast period. Increasing adoption of human identification system techniques for forensic purposes by government offices in the United States is also anticipated to drive market growth in North America. For instance, in August 2020, the medical examiner of New York City approved the use of next-generation sequencing, which the Department of Defense already employs to identify remains from World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War. Furthermore, the key participants in the region are consistently engaged in product launches and advancements to enhance their market presence. For instance, in December 2019, ANDE corporation launched a pilot with the Edmonton Police Service (EPS) to harness the power provided by Rapid DNA in a criminal investigation. EPS is the first police service in Canada to pilot the ANDE Rapid DNA identification system to solve crimes more quickly and expedite victim closure. Thus, the abovementioned factors are expected to boost the market growth in this region.
Europe is estimated to exhibit a CAGR of 11.50% over the forecast period. The increasing government initiatives to meet the growing demand for human identification systems are augmenting the market expansion in this region. For instance, in 2021, an article titled 'The UK Introduces Implementation Plan for Genomic Healthcare System' mentioned that Genomics England projects supporting Genome UK strategy implementation will receive EUR 17 million from the government. This will increase data from ethnic minority genomic cohorts, which could improve diagnosis and treatment. Similarly, the article titled 'Crime rated in Germany fall for the fifth year in a row' published in 2022, mentioned that according to figures jointly released by the federal Interior Ministry and the Federal Criminal Police Office in Berlin, 2021 saw 5,047,860 crimes reported to the emergency services, 4.9% fewer than in the previous year. Therefore, the increasing crime in this region also contributes to the market's growth.
The Asia-Pacific region is expanding at the fastest rate. The human identification market in the region is expected to thrive due to factors such as the increasing demand for enhanced security and rising crime cases. For instance, as per the National Crime Record Bureau, 9,24,016 cognizable crimes comprising 6,68,061 Indian Penal Code (IPC) crimes and 2,55,955 Special & Local Laws (SLL) crimes were registered in 19 metropolitan cities during 2020, showing an increase of 7.6% compared to 2019 (8,59,117 cases). This increase in criminal cases is expected to drive the demand for effective identification, contributing to the market's growth. In addition, the surging product launches by key regional players are fostering market expansion. For instance, in December 2021, Roche rec launched the AVENIO Edge System to advance next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. Researchers can use the pre-analytical program for sequencing library preparation, target enrichment, and qualification steps that deliver integrated, end-to-end control with reliable results.
The Latin American market for human identification is expected to record significant expansion over the forecast period. The increasing technological advancements in human identification systems and rising demand for cost-effective DNA profiling are expected to drive the market in this region during the forecast period. In addition, increasing government support is one of the major drivers of the market's growth. For instance, in January 2020, the Biosciences Institute at the University of Sao Paulo (USP) launched the "DNA do Brasil" (Brazilian DNA) initiative in December 2019, intending to map the genome of 15,000 people in Brazil aged 35-74. The objective was to learn about genetic variations typical to the population that could cause diseases; the information would help plan ways to prevent or treat them. Thus, the increase in the number of projects regarding human identification systems is also expected to drive the market in the region.
The global human identification market is segmented by technology, products and services, and applications.
Based on technology, the global human identification market is bifurcated into polymerase chain reaction (PCR), next generation sequencing (NGS), nucleic acid purification and extraction, capillary electrophoresis, rapid DNA analysis, and other technologies.
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) segment dominates the global market and is projected to exhibit a CAGR of 10.63% over the forecast period. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique for rapidly producing (amplifying) millions to billions of copies of a single DNA segment, which may subsequently be analyzed in more depth for different applications, such as DNA profiling for forensics, paternity testing, and other applications. PCR is used worldwide in laboratories because of its simple procedure and easy availability of instruments. Furthermore, the cost of PCR has reduced significantly over time, making it a very feasible technique for low-end and high-end laboratories. Therefore, its adoption is very high in developed and under-developing countries and is expected to drive growth in the PCR segment over the forecast period.
Nucleic acid sample preparation entails a variety of strategies for converting a sample that cannot be directly examined into one that meets the requirements of the analytical technique to be employed, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or next-generation sequencing (NGS) and nucleic acid purification and extraction. With the growing number of human identification procedures, the nucleic acid purification and extraction segment is expected to grow over the forecast period.
Based on products and services, the global human identification market is segmented into instruments, assay kits and reagents, software and services.
The assay kits and reagents segment owns the market and is estimated to exhibit a CAGR of 11.83% during the forecast period. The reagents and consumables are an integral part of human identification. With the increased use of human identification kits in diagnosis and their wide application, the market's reagent and consumables segment is expected to show growth over the forecast period. In February 2020, Promega Corporation launched its new Wizard HMW DNA Extraction Kit for researchers working with large fragments of genomic DNA. Such launches of kits are expected to boost the segment growth during the forecast period.
Software is an integral tool for all the technologies used in human identification. Due to the increasing demand for human identification, many companies provide human identification services. Services include maintenance, installation, and other product-related services. In addition, the companies in the market are launching new software and services, driving market growth. For instance, in October 2021, STRmix launched a new version of forensic software, STRmix version 2.9, which could resolve mixed DNA profiles previously considered too complex to interpret.
Based on application, the global human identification market is divided into forensic applications, paternity testing, and other applications.
The forensic applications segment is the largest revenue contributor to the market and is expected to exhibit a CAGR of 11.39% throughout the forecast period. The rising global crime rate is one of the major factors driving the expansion of the forensic applications market. Human identification is utilized extensively in forensics, with DNA analysis/profiling as a crucial tool. Developing DNA databases and molecular techniques has helped solve various criminal cases. Forensic DNA materials, like tissue, hair, body fluids, etc., from the crime site and their comparison with a database of DNA profiles have helped in the criminal identification process and have been widely used in various cases worldwide.
DNA profiles are utilized in paternity testing to determine whether an individual is the biological parent of another. Paternity testing assumes significance in cases where the rights and obligations of the father are under scrutiny, and there exists uncertainty regarding the biological relationship between the father and the kid. The likelihood that a person is a biological grandparent can also be determined through testing. In May 2020, Summit County Prosecutor Sherri Bevan Walsh announced that the Child Support Enforcement Agency (CSEA) began conducting DNA testing to establish paternity on child support cases. Initiatives like these are expected to increase the number of paternity testing, which is expected to augment growth in this segment.