Home Energy And Power Microbial Fuel Cell Market Size, Forecast & Analysis to 2032

Microbial Fuel Cell Market

Microbial Fuel Cell Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis Report By Type (Mediator, Mediator-Free, Microbial Electrolysis, Phototrophic Biofilm, Soil Based), By Applications (Power Generation, Wastewater Treatment, Hydrogen Production, Desalination, Remote sensors, Remote Power source, Biosensor), By End-User (Agriculture, Food and Beverage, Healthcare, Government and Municipal, Residential and Commercial, Industrial, Transportation, Military) and By Region(North America, Europe, APAC, Middle East and Africa, LATAM) Forecasts, 2024-2032

Report Code: SREP963DR
Study Period 2020-2032 CAGR 3.7%
Historical Period 2020-2022 Forecast Period 2024-2032
Base Year 2023 Base Year Market Size USD XX Billion
Forecast Year 2032 Forecast Year Market Size USD XX Billion
Largest Market North America Fastest Growing Market Asia-Pacific
The sample report only takes 30 secs to download, no need to wait longer.

Market Overview

The global microbial fuel cell market size was valued at USD 285.17 million in 2023. It is estimated to reach USD 395.46 million by 2032, growing at a CAGR of 3.7% during the forecast period (2024–2032). The global microbial fuel cell market is primarily driven by the growing demand for these cells from the wastewater industry. As there has been a massive generation of wastewater in recent years due to the growth in industrialization, the demand for MFCs has increased. Moreover, there has been a paradigm shift towards renewable energy resources from conventional energy sources, which is further expected to drive the global market.

A bioelectrochemical device known as a Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) converts the metabolic energy of microbes into usable electrical energy. These cells primarily transform the chemical energy contained in organic matter, such as wastewater or other organic substrates, into electrical energy via the metabolic processes of microorganisms. A microbial fuel cell consists of four fundamental elements, i.e., an anode, a cathode, an electrolyte, and microorganisms.

The electrical current produced by the microbial fuel cell can be extracted and utilized to energize electronic devices or supplement an external power grid. MFCs offer various benefits compared to traditional fuel cells, including affordability, eco-friendliness, utilization of renewable energy, and the potential to clean wastewater. MFCs have been extensively investigated for various purposes, such as treating wastewater, producing electricity from organic waste, and supplying energy to remote sensors or low-power devices under specific environmental circumstances.


  • North America is the highest shareholder in the global market.

Market Dynamics

Global Microbial Fuel Cell Market Drivers

Rising Demand from the Wastewater Treatment Industry

The growing need for portable water and wastewater treatment across diverse industries propels the global market. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a viable and economical approach to wastewater treatment, as they can generate electricity while effectively eliminating contaminants from wastewater. MFCs can potentially decrease both the generation of sludge and the release of greenhouse gases that are typically linked to traditional methods of treating wastewater. According to a research paper published in ReliefWeb, the global annual generation of municipal wastewater amounts to 380 billion cubic meters. Wastewater generation is projected to rise 24% by 2030 and 51% by 2050.

Furthermore, as stated in an article published by UpKeep, approximately 80 percent of global wastewater is discharged back into the ecosystem without treatment or reuse. Hence, a staggering 1.8 billion individuals rely on a polluted water source for their drinking needs, intensifying the need for wastewater treatment. Therefore, the increasing requirement for wastewater treatment is anticipated to enhance the demand for microbial fuel cells during the forecast period.

Increasing Adoption of Renewable Energy Sources

The increasing awareness and implementation of sustainable energy sources are other factors propelling the worldwide market. MFCs offer an environmentally friendly and sustainable alternative to fossil fuels by efficiently producing power from renewable and plentiful organic materials. MFCs have the potential to decrease reliance on fossil fuels and alleviate the environmental consequences of climate change and pollution.

The International Energy Agency (IEA) reports that the global renewable energy capacity is The global capacity for renewable energy is projected to experience a significant surge, with an unprecedented increase of 107 gigawatts (GW), reaching a total of over 440 GW by 2023. Moreover, renewable energy capacity will account for 35% of worldwide electricity production by 2025. The increasing prevalence of renewable energy is anticipated to generate profitable prospects for the MFC market in the coming years.

Global Microbial Fuel Cell Market Restraint

High Initial Investment and Operational Cost of MFCs 

The primary barrier to expanding the global market is the high initial expenditure and ongoing operational expenses associated with MFCs. High performance and efficiency in MFCs necessitate using costly materials and components, including electrodes, membranes, catalysts, and reactors. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) encounter difficulties expanding their size and incorporating them into pre-existing power grids and systems. Moreover, microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have a diminished power density and stability, constraining their practical utility and commercial viability.

Global Microbial Fuel Cell Market Opportunities

Rising Research and Development Activities

The continuous research and development efforts focused on raising the efficiency of MFC technology and finding novel applications have played a crucial role in driving market expansion. For instance, in October 2023, researchers discovered that using vehicle exhaust soot as an electrode material in microbial fuel cells is a cost-effective substitute for carbon-based materials such as graphene. This approach not only improves the capabilities of MFC but also addresses the environmental concern of vehicle exhaust soot by converting it into a useful resource for sustainable energy production and wastewater treatment.

Additionally, in September 2023, researchers at EPFL achieved the successful genetic modification of E. coli bacteria to produce electricity. Through the manipulation of bacteria to enhance extracellular electron transfer (EET), the genetically engineered E. coli is capable of producing electricity during the process of metabolizing various organic substrates. This discovery can transform waste management and energy generation, as the genetically altered bacteria demonstrated excellent performance in many settings, including wastewater derived from a brewery. The modified E. coli can also be employed in microbial fuel cells, electrosynthesis, and biosensing applications. Hence, these attributes are anticipated to create opportunities for market growth.

Regional Analysis

North America Dominates the Global Market

Based on region, the global microbial fuel cell market is bifurcated into North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East and Africa.

North America is the most significant global microbial fuel cell market shareholder and is expected to expand substantially during the forecast period. This dominance is due to its extensive utilization of renewable energy, advanced research and development efforts, and favorable government policies and initiatives. In 2020, renewable sources accounted for approximately 5 percent of the total energy utilized across various sectors in the United States, as the Centre for Climate Change and Energy reported. The United States is projected to experience a 2.4 percent average annual increase in renewable energy consumption during the next three decades. This growth rate is larger than the overall annual energy consumption growth rate of 0.5 percent, assuming no significant changes in current practices.

In 2020, renewable energy sources accounted for 19.8 percent of electricity production, primarily driven by hydro and wind power. This share is projected to increase to 35 percent by the year 2030. Wind and solar energy sources are expected to power most of the growth. The share of electricity generation from non-hydro renewables increased dramatically from less than 1% to over 12.5% between 2005 and 2020. This growth has occurred despite relatively stable electricity demand.

Furthermore, there has been an increase in the expansion of research and development efforts to fully investigate the capabilities of MFCs. For instance, in January 2024, a team from Northwestern University in Illinois successfully created a novel fuel cell capable of extracting energy from microorganisms residing in the soil. The fuel is approximately the dimensions of a book and can power subterranean sensors employed in green infrastructure and precision agriculture. It can be a sustainable and renewable substitute for batteries that employ hazardous and combustible substances, which may seep into the soil during usage. Additionally, the materials utilized in battery production originate from supply chains affected by conflicts and contribute to the accumulation of electronic waste. Therefore, the factors above will accelerate market expansion throughout the projected timeframe.

Asia-Pacific is expected to experience the highest growth rate in the market due to the rapid development of industries, urban areas, population expansion, and increased energy requirements in emerging economies like China, India, Japan, and South Korea. These countries possess significant potential for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) because of their vast supply of organic substrates, including wastewater, food waste, and agricultural residues. Additionally, they confront water scarcity, pollution, and energy security issues. In addition, these nations have made significant investments in the study and advancement of MFCs and have formed collaborations and partnerships with the foremost participants in the industry.

For instance, in November 2023, researchers from Ritsumeikan University in Japan created a self-powered biosensor using a floating microbial fuel cell (FMFC). This biosensor is designed to continuously monitor the presence of organic contaminants in lakes and rivers. They achieved this by adding soil containing electrogenic bacteria to the FMFC's anode, which is the electrode where oxidation occurs and electrons are released. The anodic bacteria then broke down the organic stuff in the water and transformed the stored chemical energy into electricity. The electrical output was subsequently utilized to quantify the organic waste content in the polluted water. These aspects contribute to the growth of the regional market.

Report Scope

Report Metric Details
By Type
  1. Mediator
  2. Mediator-Free
  3. Microbial Electrolysis
  4. Phototrophic Biofilm
  5. Soil Based
By Applications
  1. Power Generation
  2. Wastewater Treatment
  3. Hydrogen Production
  4. Desalination
  5. Remote sensors
  6. Remote Power source
  7. Biosensor
By End-User
  1. Agriculture
  2. Food and Beverage
  3. Healthcare
  4. Government and Municipal
  5. Residential and Commercial
  6. Industrial
  7. Transportation
  8. Military
Company Profiles Protonex Cambrian Innovation Inc Fluence Corporation Limited Vinpro Technologies Triqua International BV Sainergy Tech, Inc. MICROrganic Technologies Prongineer Microbial Robotics Emefcy ElectroChem
Geographies Covered
North America U.S. Canada
Europe U.K. Germany France Spain Italy Russia Nordic Benelux Rest of Europe
APAC China Korea Japan India Australia Singapore Taiwan South East Asia Rest of Asia-Pacific
Middle East and Africa UAE Turky Saudi Arabia South Africa Egypt Nigeria Rest of MEA
LATAM Brazil Mexico Argentina Chile Colombia Rest of LATAM
Report Coverage Revenue Forecast, Competitive Landscape, Growth Factors, Environment & Regulatory Landscape and Trends
Need a Custom Report?

We can customize every report - free of charge - including purchasing stand-alone sections or country-level reports

Segmental Analysis

The global microbial fuel cell market is bifurcated into type, application, and end-user.

Based on type, the global market is segmented into mediator, mediator-free, microbial electrolysis, phototrophic biolfilm, and soil-based.  

Direct electron transport between microbial cells and electrodes can be hindered by variables such as microbial outer membrane barriers or inadequate electrical conductivity. To address these constraints, mediators are incorporated into the microbial fuel cell system. A mediator is a chemical that aids in the passage of electrons between microbial cells and the electrode by transporting electrons from the microbial catalyst to the electrode. This optimizes the overall effectiveness of the electron transfer process and raises the electrical yield of the microbial fuel cell. Microbial fuel cells employ a range of mediators, such as chemical substances like quinones or redox dyes. These mediators function as electron carriers, facilitating the flow of electrons from bacteria to the electrode, hence enhancing the overall efficiency of the microbial fuel cell.

Based on application, the global market is segmented into power generation, wastewater treatment, hydrogen production, desalination, remote sensors, remote power sources, biosensors, and other applications.

The main purpose of microbial fuel cells is to generate electricity. However, they have also been investigated for hydrogen production using a technique known as microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) or microbial electrolysis for hydrogen production (MEHP). MFCs for electricity generation can also be adapted or utilized to facilitate hydrogen production. MECs, short for Microbial Electrolysis Cells, are specialized MFCs that are particularly engineered to produce hydrogen.

In a typical microbial electrochemical cell (MEC), microorganisms utilize organic materials as a substrate and generate electrons and protons. Subsequently, these electrons traverse an external circuit towards the cathode, where they undergo a reaction with protons and undergo reduction to generate hydrogen gas. This is a type of microbial electrolysis in which microorganisms facilitate the electrolysis process.

Based on end-users, the global market is bifurcated into agriculture, food and beverage, healthcare, government and municipal, residential and commercial, industrial, transportation, military, and others.

Microbial fuel cells can be utilized in the food and beverage (F&B) industry for several applications. MFCs can provide a consistent, albeit minimal, flow of electric current. This electricity can be utilized to operate energy-efficient technologies in the food and beverage sector, such as sensors or monitoring systems for quality assurance. Adopting MFCs aligns with sustainable practices, offering energy generation that relies on organic waste.

Moreover, the utilization of waste streams for energy generation can aid in mitigating the environmental impact of the food and beverage industry. MFCs can be included in biosensor systems to monitor microbial activity or particular food and beverage production parameters. By utilizing real-time monitoring, product quality can be preserved and compliance with safety regulations can be guaranteed.

Market Size By Type

Market Size By Type
  • Mediator
  • Mediator-Free
  • Microbial Electrolysis
  • Phototrophic Biofilm
  • Soil Based
  • Recent Developments

    Top Key Players

    Microbial Fuel Cell Market Share of Key Players

    Microbial Fuel Cell Market Share of Key Players
    Protonex Cambrian Innovation Inc Fluence Corporation Limited Vinpro Technologies Triqua International BV Sainergy Tech, Inc. MICROrganic Technologies Prongineer Microbial Robotics Emefcy ElectroChem Others

    Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    What is the growth rate for the Microbial Fuel Cell Market?
    Microbial Fuel Cell Market size will grow at approx. CAGR of 3.7% during the forecast period.
    Some of the top industry players in Microbial Fuel Cell Market are, Protonex, Cambrian Innovation Inc, Fluence Corporation Limited, Cambrian Innovation Inc, Vinpro Technologies, Triqua International BV, Sainergy Tech, Inc., MICROrganic Technologies, Prongineer, Microbial Robotics, Emefcy, ElectroChem, Fluence Corporation Limited, etc.
    In the Microbial Fuel Cell Market, North America has established itself as the market leader with a significant market share.
    The Asia Pacific region has experienced the highest growth rate in the market.
    The global market report is segmented as follows: By Type, By Application, By End-User

    We are featured on :