The global polymerase chain reaction (PCR) market size was valued at USD 23.5 billion in 2021 and is estimated to reach an expected value of USD 26 billion by 2030 at a CAGR of 1.2% during the forecast period (2022-2030). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifies a specific DNA segment through a thermal cycling protocol. Polymerase chain reaction technology is constantly evolving to quickly improve the specificity, scalability, and reliability of DNA amplification to produce millions of amplicons of a target sequence. The detection of pathogenic microorganisms, illness diagnosis, molecular and genetic research, forensic DNA profiling, and parentage testing are just a few of the uses for PCR. Major drivers anticipated propelling market expansion include rising CRO, forensic, and research lab numbers; rising demand for sophisticated diagnostic methods; and rising prevalence of ailments such as chronic illnesses, infectious diseases, and genetic abnormalities. Increasing demand for prenatal genetic testing procedures is another key factor likely to boost the market growth. Furthermore, the launch of novel technologies is expected to propel the market over the forecast period.
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Rising Incidence of Infectious Diseases, Chronic Diseases, and Genetic Disorders
The increase in the prevalence of chronic & infectious diseases and genetic disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Turner syndrome, & Parkinson's disease, is expected to boost the market demand during the forecast period. Furthermore, the number of patients with congenital heart disease is increasing, requiring medical professionals to look to molecular diagnostic tools for accurate diagnoses. Unhealthy dietary habits, obesity, high tobacco & alcohol consumption, and a sedentary lifestyle are expected to increase cancer prevalence. According to WHO Regional Director for Europe, 8 out of 10 deaths in coronavirus-infected patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases/hypertension, diabetes, and other chronic underlying conditions. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is driving the demand for qPCR equipment and consumables. The increasing incidence of COVID-19 is expected to prompt a surge in preventive screenings, facilitating market growth. The increasing prevalence of genetic disorders will drive the PCR market over the coming years. According to a report published by CDC in 2016, congenital heart defects were the most common congenital disabilities in the U.S., affecting approximately 1% of births yearly. Thus, the growing incidence of various diseases will likely boost the PCR industry over the forecast period.
Increasing Demand for Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Growing Adoption of PCR Technologies
Increasing adoption of Real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies is expected to propel the market. The adoption of PCR techniques is increasing owing to their accuracy, automation, precision, real-time quantification, and sensitivity. qPCR offers a wide range of input nucleic acids, making it a practical and valuable technology in research applications. It has diverse applications in areas such as oncology & genetic disease research, stem cell research, pathogen detection, research of infectious diseases, pharmacogenomics, pharmaceutical analytics, agricultural biotechnology, and plant sciences research. It is also one of the technologies significantly used in forensic sciences.
Combining digital PCR and group testing methods will reduce costs and boost testing capacity. For instance, the COVID-19 test by Stilla Technologies offers group testing, which reduces reagent use and improves efficiency. This new development allows users to reduce the utilization of select reagents by 80% without hampering the method's efficiency. This improvement is anticipated to boost the demand for dPCR, as several manufacturers face reagent scarcity for qPCR owing to the high demand for SARS-CoV-2 testing globally.
dPCR allows precise quantification in several applications, such as copy number variation, liquid biopsy, single-cell analysis, pathogen detection, rare sequence detection, NGS library analysis, gene expression, and miRNA analysis. qPCR can be helpful in the early diagnosis of diseases, which is expected to drive the market over the forecast period.
High QPCR Device Costs
The current costs associated with qPCR devices are on the higher side. The CFX Connect PCR Detection System by Bio-Rad Laboratories costs approximately USD 17,995. In contrast, the cost of Thermo Fisher Scientific's 7900 HT qPCR system ranges from USD 20,000 to USD 30,000. Digital PCR instruments with more accurate results and sensitivity cost more than real-time PCR instruments. A manual dPCR instrument costs between USD 65,000 and USD 70,000, whereas automated dPCR instruments can cost nearly USD 100,000. Thermo Fisher Scientific's Open Array Real-Time PCR System (with TaqMan OpenArray Digital PCR Plates) costs USD 140,000 for the complete system, and Bio-Rad Laboratories' QX100 ddPCR system costs USD 89,000. The high cost of qPCR devices is expected to restrain the market to a certain extent.
Increasing Demand for Prenatal Genetic Testing Procedures
Increasing demand for prenatal genetic testing procedures, owing to growing awareness about genetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis, hemophilia, and thalassemia, is expected to propel the market. In the early stages of pregnancy, fetal DNA present in the mother's blood or the amniotic fluid can be analyzed to detect genetic defects before birth using qPCR & dPCR techniques.
Possible genetic aberrations and fetuses with defective genes can then be treated during early pregnancy. Furthermore, an increase in the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities is expected to fuel the market in the future. For instance, sickle cell disease impacts 1 in 365 births of African American origin and about 100,000 Americans. Such genetic abnormalities are also high in the Middle East and Asian nations, which can be attributed to consanguineous marriages & a high number of gene defect carriers. This is complemented by the increasing preference for PCR techniques in prenatal genetic testing, owing to the nonrequirement of reference standards, low cycle times, and reproducible results. In addition, increasing healthcare expenditure and the growing need for high accuracy & safety are expected to propel the market.
The global polymerase chain reaction (PCR) market is segmented by type, product, application, and region.
By Type, the global PCR market is segmented into conventional PCR and others. The other segment is the market's largest segment and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 1% during the forecast period. It consists of real-time, digital, multiplex, and ultrafast PCR. The segment held the largest share owing to the increasing adoption of qPCR & dPCR. This can be attributed to their rapid detection of infections & pathogens compared to conventional PCR technologies. PCR is also widely used in food, agricultural, & water testing and research purposes such as microbial diagnostics, DNA cloning, & rare mutation detection. Other factors favoring this segment include higher sensitivity & resolution and the scope for automation. In addition, the development and launch of new technologies in this segment are expected to drive the market over the forecast period. This includes plasmonic PCR, a low-cost solution that can detect infections & pathogens faster than existing PCR technologies.
By Product, the global PCR market is segmented into instruments, consumables and reagents, software & services. The consumables & reagents segment is the largest market segment and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 1% during the forecast period. PCR consumables vary based on numerous parameters. Among them, well-surface characteristics, material properties, quality, and well/skirt dimensions play the most crucial role. Consumables & reagents influence the overall performance of an assay. They help create standardized workflows that can support researchers in various fields, such as food testing, detection of cancer & infectious diseases, and forensics. The global burden of diseases has increased in the past few years, and the current pandemic has contributed to the increased demand for consumables and reagents, which is responsible for the dominance of this segment.
By Application, the global PCR market is segmented into medical and non-medical. The medical segment is the market's largest segment and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 0.4% during the forecast period. Medical is segmented into clinical, research, and forensic & others. Medical use of PCR has dominated the market owing to its advantages in research & other applications, such as detecting and quantifying low-frequency mutations & low levels of pathogens with higher sensitivity. Furthermore, this technique is used in drug development, which includes the measurement of drug efficacy. Moreover, PCR is widely used to detect SARS-CoV-2 from lower & upper respiratory tract samples. COVID-19 real-time PCR kits are IVD reagents relying on fluorescent PCR technology and aim at detecting COVID-19 qualitatively.
By Region, the global polymerase chain reaction (PCR) market is segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, Middle East & Africa.
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North America is the largest region of the market and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 0.9% during the forecast period. The rising prevalence of chronic diseases, genetic disorders, & infectious diseases, increasing demand for rapid diagnostic tests, and the growing geriatric population are some of the major factors responsible for the most significant revenue generated by North America. Furthermore, investments for gene-based research and significant market suppliers such as Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. & Agilent Technologies are also critical factors positively impacting the market growth. Technological advancements, such as microfluidic PCR in droplets, on-chip, off-chip thermocycling, and on-chip integration, are expected to be one of the high-impact rendering drivers of this market. In addition, product advancements in the field of qPCR, such as QuantStudio 5 real-time PCR system, which is used for human identification in forensic laboratories, are expected to propel the market.
Europe is the second largest region. It is estimated to reach an expected value of USD 6.2 billion by 2030 at a CAGR of 0.5%. The growing prevalence of cardiovascular disorders & genetic disorders and investments in genomics & proteomics is expected to drive the growth of this region. In addition, an increase in government funding, a rise in the number of genetic counseling programs being conducted by governments, and an increase in investments in the healthcare sector are some of the high-impact rendering drivers of the PCR market in Europe. Moreover, the presence of key players such as Qiagen and F. Hoffmann La Roche Ltd. and their strong product portfolio is expected to boost the market growth. Furthermore, the outbreak of SARS-COV-2 has increased the demand, and favorable regulatory policies encourage manufacturers to develop and introduce COVID-19-related products in the region, which may drive the market in the near future. However, the European economic crisis and the presence of uneven reimbursement policies may restrain the growth of this market in Europe. In addition, rising government initiatives to accelerate the testing capacity in developing countries are anticipated to fuel market growth. For instance, in September 2020, European Union and WHO agreed to provide 10,000 Covid-19 PCR tests and other equipment to Armenia Health Ministry.
The Asia Pacific is the third largest region. The Asia Pacific is expected to be the fastest-growing region over the forecast period. High unmet clinical needs, untapped market opportunities, and increasing healthcare expenditure are some of the critical factors responsible for the growth of this region. Technological advancements and the rising prevalence of various target diseases are expected to increase the need for PCR. Furthermore, the demand for healthcare products and government initiatives to improve the population's health is expected to drive market growth during the forecast period. Increasing utilization of PCR tests to detect SARS-CoV-2 is anticipated to drive the PCR market. For instance, as of 9th October 2020, approximately 2.26 million people have undergone PCR tests in Japan. Till April 2020, there were only 0.16 million people used PCR tests for COVID-19. Furthermore, provisional approval of PCR kits to detect COVID-19 propelled the market growth over the forecast period. For instance, around 34 PCR tests have received provisional authorization from Health Sciences Authority. Some tests include abTES COVID-19 qPCR I Kit by AITbiotech Pte Ltd, Real-Time PCR Assay for the Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Virus by DSO National Laboratories, ProTect COVID-19 RT-qPCR Kit by JN Medsys Pte Ltd, VitaPCR SARS-CoV-2 Assay by Credo Diagnostics Biomedical Pte Ltd, and others.
Some of the major companies in the market are