The global primary cell culture market size was valued at USD 4,129.77 million in 2022. It is estimated to reach USD 10,564.09 million by 2031, growing at a CAGR of 11% during the forecast period (2023–2031). Due to regenerative and personalised medicine research, primary cell culture product demand is expected to rise.
Cell culture is a method for extracting cells from people, plants, or other living things and growing them in a favourable environment. The cells may be obtained directly from the tissue or a previously developed cell line or strain. "Primary culture" refers to the stage of the culture procedure after the cells have been isolated from the tissue and have increased under ideal conditions until they have filled the spaces in the cell culture medium. Primary cell culture has applications in many fields, including cancer research, illness diagnostics, medication screening, and the production of natural products. In contrast to the expansion of immortalised cell lines, primary cell culture is the ex vivo cultivation of recently separated cells from a multicellular organism. Cell lines are frequently considered less representative of in vivo tissues than primary cell cultures.
In contrast, primary cells require a specific quantity of substrate and nutrients to survive. After a particular number of divisions, they adopt a senescent phenotype that causes irreversible cell cycle arrest. Cell lines are created as a result of these two reasons. HeLa cells are an example of naturally immortalised primary cells. HEK cells are an example of genetically modified immortalised primary cells. At this stage, primary cells are transformed into cell lines that can be endlessly subcultured.
|Market Size||USD 10,564.09 million by 2031|
|Fastest Growing Market||Europe|
|Largest Market||North America|
|Report Coverage||Revenue Forecast, Competitive Landscape, Growth Factors, Environment & Regulatory Landscape and Trends|
Primary tissue cells can be studied in vivo to show their proper function. Thus, these cells are utilised as model systems to investigate cell biochemistry and physiology, ageing signalling metabolism, and hazardous chemicals and medications. Primary cells include fibroblasts, melanocytes, keratinocytes, endothelium, hematopoietic, and mesenchymal. Early primary cell cultures are heterogeneous and only last briefly in vitro. Transformation subcultures these. Primary cell line data analysis is more relevant than animal studies due to species specificity, encouraging research investigations to use these products. Primary cell lines also allow researchers to evaluate drug toxicity using cells from organs, including the lungs, liver, and pancreas. These cell lines are also more likely to express the same genes and proteins as in vivo cells, making them ideal experimental models for study.
With the rise of personalised medicine, researchers can study donor cells with specific characteristics to eliminate toxic drug effects early in development and create biomarkers that identify specific patient cohorts with whom a drug has therapeutic effects. Thus, due to regenerative and personalised medicine research, primary cell culture product demand is expected to rise.
Scientists' interest in stem cell research drives primary cell culture market growth. Stem cell lines are healthy, dividing, undifferentiated cells grown in vitro using cell culture material and equipment. RT-PCR, automated cell counters, and imaging devices aid stem cell research. It is crucial for treating cardiovascular, brain, cell, and blood problems. Cell and tissue replacement can cure Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Stem cell research also studies human and tissue/organ development in vitro.
Stem cell research is driving the primary cell culture coating market. Stem cells are used in life sciences research for their ability to treat chronic illnesses, understand the body, and replicate. Stem cell research is also boosted by chronic illness prevalence worldwide. Stem cells treat diabetes, chronic heart disorders, osteoarthritis, Alzheimer's, and cancer. According to the International Society for Stem Cell Research, around 25 scientific organisations sponsor stem cell research, helping academic institutions perform comprehensive research. American Health Assistance Foundation, American Cancer Society, EMBO, NIH, and New York Stem Cell Foundation are notable organisations.
Research on human embryonic stem cells raises ethical concerns, including respect for human life. Because it leads to the killing of human embryos, harvesting embryonic stem cells violates the respect for the worth of human life. Gaining Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) over research materials or products is another significant barrier to cell development. Ethical consent should be acquired before using a tissue to produce cell lines because the technique allows for patient identification via DNA, which can occasionally result in the exploitation of the tissue for illicit activities or the proxy diagnosis of illnesses to gain insurance.
Numerous culture mediums contain bovine serum and other animal sera, a rich nutrient source. The evisceration procedure separates the mother's uterus, which contains the calf fetus, causing discomfort to the calf and fetus throughout the blood collection process. The yearly production of raw FCS is thought to be over 500,000 litres, equal to the removal of over 1,000,000 bovine fetuses. Using embryonic stem cells in cell culture is another problem that poses limitations. Due to peoples' strong religious and ethical convictions, removing stem cells from an embryo destroys the embryo, which raises ethical concerns.
Since primary cells closely resemble the original donor tissue, they are considered more physiologically representative than cell lines. Because of this, it is increasingly clear that primary cells grown in 3D cell cultures may create models of in vivo multicellular environments that are more physiologically accurate than cell lines. Because they produce more precise results than regular cell lines, primary cells are widely used in 3D cultures. For instance, primary hepatocyte cells grown in a monolayer on plastic become undifferentiated and perish after four days.
North America Dominates the Global Market
Based on region, the Global Primary Cell Culture Market is bifurcated into North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East and Africa.
North America is the most significant Global Primary Cell Culture Market shareholder and is estimated to exhibit a CAGR of 10.9% over the forecast period. Due to many stem cell transplants and clinical research, the market is expanding. As cancer and chronic illnesses rise, so will the region. The quantity of primary cells has grown due to the expanding number of people with chronic illnesses that can only be treated through medical advances. Research by the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) showed a significant increase in individuals receiving stem cell therapy.
The CIBMTR estimated around 8,000 US allogeneic transplant patients in 2013. From 9,509 in 2018, 9,498 transplants were expected in 2019. Autologous transplants have increased steadily since 2000, reaching 14,270 in 2019. Over 60% of U.S. transplants are autologous. Emerging nations in the Asia-Pacific, Middle East, and Latin America are witnessing a much bigger increase in transplants and therapies than wealthier European and Asian nations. This number is expected to increase demand for regenerative medicines, organogenesis, and stem cell therapies. Rising cancer rates will boost primary cell treatment demand and market growth, especially in low- and middle-income nations.
Europe is anticipated to exhibit a CAGR of 10.45% over the forecast period. The biotechnology and pharmaceutical sectors are well-established in nations like Germany, the United Kingdom, France, and Sweden, which support R&D efforts. The need for primary cell culture products has increased due to the region's emphasis on personalised medicine, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicines. The presence of several universities and research institutes further aids business expansion.
Asia-Pacific has emerged as one of the fastest-growing regions in the global market. Over the projected period, Asia Pacific is anticipated to have the quickest growth. The reduced prices for stem cell transplantation in the area, which also contribute to the strong demand, are the main cause of the rise. Significant R&D activities are also being carried out by researchers, which is another factor contributing to the region's expansion. For instance, in March 2020, scientists at China's Centre for Disease Control (CDC) propagated SARS-CoV-2 using lung airway cells grown in human tissue culture systems.
In LAMEA, A growing market for primary cell culture is Latin America. Healthcare industries are expanding in nations like Brazil and Mexico, and biomedical research funding is also rising. Increased investments in drug discovery, the incidence of chronic illnesses, and public awareness of regenerative medicine are some of the reasons driving the need for primary cell culture products. The Middle East and Africa region hold less of the worldwide primary cell culture market than other areas. However, in nations like Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and South Africa, there is a rising interest in biomedical research and the construction of healthcare facilities. These elements are anticipated to support market expansion and the increased frequency of chronic disorders.
The global primary cell culture market is bifurcated into product, cell type, application, and separation and culture method.
Based on the product, the global primary cell culture market is bifurcated into Primary Cells, Media, Reagents, and Supplements.
The reagents and supplements segment dominates the global market and is projected to exhibit a CAGR of 11.2% over the forecast period. Reagent and supplement use is expanding quickly. Primary cells are considered extremely important for cell culture development because they are naturally delicate. Amino acids, antibiotics, freezing media, and buffers are a few examples of the reagents and supplements used in primary cell culture; these goods are also often used in research and production applications requiring primary cell culture. These items are crucial for the development of cell cultures, and any modification or restriction related to the reagents or supplements may result in the demise of these cells. Creating novel products like growth factors and cytokines also affects the segment's expansion. For instance, in October 2020, Safi Biosolutions, Inc. and iBio, Inc., a biotechnology business headquartered in the United States, struck a strategic partnership to create growth factors and cytokines utilising iBio's FastPharming System.
Based on cell type, the Global Primary Cell Culture Market is segmented into human and animal cells.
The animal cell segment dominates the global market and is predicted to exhibit a CAGR of 10.8% during the forecast period. Animal cells are raised to be used in various cell-based experiments, including those that examine protein expression, differentiation, morphology, cell proliferation, toxicity, and apoptosis in various conditions. Today, animal cell culture is one of the most important methods in the biological sciences for conducting affordable and easily commercialised research. Animal cell culture has several uses, including characterising cancer cells, toxicity testing to examine the effects of novel medications, vaccine development, and investigations into fundamental cell biology.
The broad product selection of animal-origin primary cells offered by businesses like Lonza, Merck KGaA, and Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc. is responsible for the segment's growth. Those obtained from mice, rabbits, and monkeys are adipose stem cells, fibroblasts, hepatocytes, immunological cells, hematopoietic cells, keratinocytes, meningeal cells, and mesangial cells. The use of primary cells from animals in the creation of vaccines is expanding, supporting the segment's growth. Animal primary cells are used to create viruses that may be utilised to create vaccinations for diseases including rabies, polio, measles, chickenpox, and hepatitis B. Consequently, this has assisted in doing away with the need for animal models.
Based on application, the global primary cell culture market is bifurcated into drug screening and toxicity testing, virology, cancer research, vaccine production, prenatal diagnosis, gene therapy, regenerative medicines, stem cell therapy, tissue culture, and tissue engineering, model systems.
The vaccine production segment owns the highest market share and is predicted to exhibit a CAGR of 11.2% over the forecast period. Animal models are unnecessary since primary animal cells are utilised to create viruses that are then used to create vaccinations (such as those for severe illnesses like polio, rabies, chickenpox, measles, hepatitis B, etc., generated via animal cell culture). As a result, it is now less expensive to utilise animal models for testing. Vaccines have been successfully utilised to combat fatal illnesses all around the world. The creation of vaccinations has significantly benefited both humanity and the healthcare sector. Key players also provide cell culture medium for the creation of vaccines. For instance, the EX-CELL Serum-free Vaccine medium and EX-CELL EBx Cell Line Media are two cell culture mediums Merck KGaA offers for developing vaccines that include minimal or non-minimal products. The presence of such well-known players and their cutting-edge products is likely to show enormous promise in the future.
Based on the separation and culture method, the global primary cell culture market is divided into explant method, enzymatic Degradation, and mechanical separation.
The enzymatic degradation segment is the most significant contributor to the market and is estimated to exhibit a CAGR of 10.9% over the forecast period. The most popular method for cell disaggregation is this one. This method uses a variety of enzymes to disaggregate the tissue and offers a high output of primary cells. The enzyme most frequently employed in this method is crude trypsin. To preserve the yield and purity of the cells, it is strongly advised to eliminate any traces of these enzymes from the cells before culture. Enzymatic disaggregation is the most favoured approach in primary cell culture separation and culture procedures since it has less of a negative impact on the cells and produces a higher yield. The following benefits of enzymatic Degradation are also present: It prevents cell selection by migration and, as a result, often produces more representative samples, and in comparison to explant, it moves more quickly.