The global vaccine adjuvants market size had a share of USD 789 million in 2021, which is anticipated to increase at a CAGR of 14% and reach USD 2566 million during the forecast period. The driving aspects for the increase of the vaccine adjuvants market are the unmet needs for vaccines against certain illnesses, increasing strict government recommendations for immunizations, technological advancements, and increasing use of recombinant subunit and synthetic vaccines.
The rising preponderance of diseases like cervical cancer and other infectious diseases such as Human Papillomavirus (HPV), HIV, tuberculosis, etc., and other fatal diseases boosts the demand for adjuvants. The adjuvant market is increasing from the growing use of recombinant subunit vaccines. As its usage is subsequently incrementing, the demand for various adjuvants is also expanding. It is expected in the upcoming years that more developments will take place, furthering the increase in the need for adjuvants. The market is also contemplated to hoist at a moderate rate, majorly fuelled by increasing research and development activities worldwide.
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Governmental organizations worldwide are endorsing and addressing the awareness regarding immunization against various diseases, like anthrax, hepatitis, HPV, influenza, varicella, and other conditions.
The US government 2019 allocated USD 290 million in foreign aid for the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization. Around USD 226 million for the Department of Health and Human Services to boost child vaccination campaigns abroad. Such initiatives by the government across countries regarding immunization increase the use of vaccine adjuvants and show a positive impact on the overall market.
Another instance was when the Indian government, in May 2020, allocated INR 100 crores from the PM-CARES (Prime Minister's Citizen Assistance and Relief in Emergency Situations) Fund to promote the initiative to create a vaccine against the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), thus driving the vaccine adjuvants market.
Hence, the growing threat of infectious and deadly diseases, its effectivity, enhanced immunogenicity, and various government initiatives and promotions are envisioned to enhance demand for vaccine adjuvants over the forecast period.
Since the 16th century, vaccines have been used even though there are unmet areas of need. The world still lacks a vaccine for HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C, and there is a need for a better vaccine against several other flu cases.
Despite so many years of research and study, there is still no approved therapeutic or prophylactic HIV vaccine. This pushes the market to perform better and provide a solution for the incurring diseases.
As per data published by the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) in 2018, 348,000 out of 4,291,000 surviving infants in Europe and Central Asia had not received the three required doses of the DTP vaccine.
Hence, the use of vaccine adjuvants is highly anticipated to increase the treatment of the diseases due to the high unmet needs and positively impact the market.
The desired immune response to certain vaccines may intensify after adding formulated compounds called adjuvants. The use has been made in human vaccines for over a century, yet only very few adjuvants are licensed for usage.
The problem associated with the adjuvants used in modern-day vaccines is the risk of adverse reactions, such as local (pain, local inflammation, swelling, injection site necrosis, lymphadenopathy, granulomas, ulcers, and the generation of sterile abscesses) or systemic (nausea, fever, adjuvant arthritis, uveitis, eosinophilia, allergy, anaphylaxis, organ-specific toxicity, and immunotoxicity).
The most common adjuvant used is aluminum. It is a neurotoxin. Aluminum salts have been the main adjuvants used in vaccines for almost 80 years. Despite the long practice, the mechanism of the components of aluminum salts is still unclear, and their use may cause local reactions in the patients' body, such as pain at the injection site, erythema, and swelling that can last for several days.
When considering the development and usage of vaccines, the unacceptable side effects and toxicity obviate the use of many candidate adjuvants, as safety issues are preponderant. To gain efficacy, minimization of toxicity is one of the significant obstacles in adjuvant development, which creates restraint in expanding the market.
The future prospect of the global vaccine adjuvants market is primarily influenced by the increasing occurrence of several diseases and increasing healthcare disbursement across the globe. The developing countries worldwide are expected to expand their vaccine developments and production and intensify study. This factor is likely to drive more competition in the upcoming years.
There has been increasing effort toward creating awareness and conducting immunization programs, especially in developing and underdeveloped countries. The immunization process has been acknowledged as one of the great successes in global health. It is one of the impregnable and most economical ways to reduce the overall disease burden and obviate deaths due to certain diseases.
Advancing technologies and routes of immunization have empowered innovation primarily with adjuvants, vectors, alternative courses of vaccination, and other strategies. Recent advancements in biotechnology, molecular biology, and immunology have pivoted towards an increasingly rapid identification of new vaccine antigens and the generation of better performed and safer vaccines.
Based on type, the vaccine adjuvants market is bifurcated into Mineral Salt-based Adjuvant, Adjuvant Emulsions, Liposome Adjuvants, Tensoactive Adjuvants, Bacteria-derived Adjuvants, Virus-like Particles (VLP), Carbohydrate Adjuvants and others.
The mineral salt-based adjuvant is expected to dominate the market with the largest share of USD 979 million at a CAGR of 14% during the forecast period.
Aluminum-based salts include aluminum hydroxide, aluminum phosphate, and aluminum hydroxy phosphate. These mineral salt-based adjuvants are also used for research purposes to increase the efficaciousness of the vaccines.
Creative Biolabs company, which is involved in adjuvant vaccine development, primarily focuses on mineral salt-based adjuvants. Because of the rapid adoption of mineral-based adjuvants in various vaccine formulations, the market is estimated to exhibit significant and influential performance during the forecast period.
The adjuvant emulsions segment is expected to increase at a CAGR of 13% and reach USD 658 million during the forecast period.
Emulsion-based adjuvants are also colossally utilized in the development of vaccines. The most used adjuvants are oil emulsions, for instance, the Freund’s complete adjuvant function. The emulsion adjuvant works by creating a depot at the injection site and then slowly releases an antigen that elicits the desired immune response.
Furthermore, key market players focusing on developing and launching new products are likely to drive the market.
The market is segmented as Active Immunostimulants, Carriers, and Vehicle Adjuvants based on usage type.
Active Immunostimulants to generate USD 1089 million at a CAGR of 14% during the forecast period.
Many immunostimulants activate innate immunity and incubate endogenous immune mediators like cytokine to treat chronic infections and cancers.
In vaccine development, adjuvants are immunostimulants that have the essential assignment of presenting antigens to the immune system, extracting an amplified and antigen-specific immune response.
Carriers are expected to have a share of USD 745 million at a CAGR of 13%.
As adjuvant or antigen delivery carriers, synthetic degradable polymer materials show good biocompatibility and safety. As an adjuvant, these delivery carriers can disintegrate free antigens, protect antigens, and enhance antigen uptake by antigen-presenting cells (APCs).
Liposomes can act as carrier adjuvants for microbial vaccines or cytokines while restricting vaccine interaction with maternal antibodies due to their immunoadjuvant action.
Based on the disease type, the market is segmented into infectious diseases and cancer.
Infectious diseases share USD 1959 million at a CAGR of 13%.
The growing frequentness of various infectious diseases and the up-gradation in technology for developing novel vaccines against infectious diseases are the significant aspects that drive the global vaccine adjuvant market growth.
Cancer disease is expected to share USD 412 million at a CAGR of 13% during the forecast period.
The expanding prevalence of cancers worldwide is ascending the demand for preventive measures. Thus acting as a significant contributor driver for the growth of the cancer disease segment in the coming years.
Based on application, the market is segmented into research applications and commercial applications.
Research applications segment to have a share of USD 402 million at a CAGR of 12% during the forecast period.
The adjuvants are increasingly being practiced and utilized in research studies to evaluate the safety of vaccines against different infectious diseases and cancers and enhance the host immune response.
Due to such increasing interest in adjuvant-based vaccine research and the availability of research grants in the studied field, the application of adjuvants in the research segment is likely to develop further over the forecast period.
The commercial segment is expected to share USD 2098 million at a CAGR of 14% by 2030.
Adjuvants have been comprehensively delved into and utilized in vaccines to improve the immune response in the target population. With the growing issue of infectious diseases and cancers, there is a massive demand for vaccines. This results in upsurging the market for vaccine adjuvants to be licensed and used in the commercial production of vaccines.
The licensed vaccines contain an increasing variety of adjuvants, with a growing pipeline of adjuvanted vaccines. Thus, increased licensed vaccines and growing government initiatives will further push the demand to develop.
The regional segmentation of the Global Vaccine Adjuvants Market share is done as North America, Asia-Pacific, Europe, South America, and Middle East and Africa.
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North America is expected to have the largest share among the regions. The region is expected to have a value of USD 1021 million at a CAGR of 13% during the forecast period.
The region's country, the United States, is one of the key contributors to the market share due to the extensive government recommendations for immunizations, significant market players, and the availability of advanced technologies.
Based on the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) report in 2019, the total healthcare spending of the country was USD 3,634.1 billion. The enormous effort in the research and development and significant expenditure on the healthcare segment and the presence of substantial players result in the steep growth of demand in the country.
Several strategies, such as research and development, mergers and acquisitions, and product launches, are being taken upon by domestic companies to further strengthen their market position. With the increasing prevalence of cancer and epidemic flu, significant investments in research are needed from the government. This is pushing the growth in the region further.
Europe will have the second-largest share in the market with USD 628 million at a CAGR of 13% during the forecast period.
Germany contributes the most to the market share among the different countries in the region.
The vaccine adjuvants market in Germany is growing due to development in the research and study initiatives and favorable pharmaceutical regulations. The country also has many companies operating in the healthcare sector. The country's critical market growth is expected in the upcoming years due to the advancements in adjuvant vaccine technologies and new developments.