The global vaccine vials market size was valued at USD 4,909 million in 2022. It is estimated to reach USD 17,915 million by 2031, growing at a CAGR of 15.47% during the forecast period (2023–2031).
The invention of vaccines has revolutionized the healthcare scenario across the world. Vaccines strengthen the immune system by exposing it to weaker pathogens. The enhanced immune system then protects the human body from infections and diseases. The commercially available vaccines are packaged in vials or ampoules, then administered through injections. The vaccine manufacturers prefer small vials for packaging to produce a large amount of vaccine. At the same time, vaccines are administered in smaller dosages than other drugs, making smaller-sized vails a better packaging option. Also, vaccine vials are available in either plastic or glass material. Furthermore, the vaccine vials could differ in design depending upon their use, including single or multiple doses. The market players offer a wide variety of vials for vaccine packaging.
Infectious diseases have been a cause of concern for governments across several countries, especially in emerging markets. According to WHO, the common vaccine-preventable diseases include diphtheria, measles, Haemophilus influenzae serotype b infection, rubella, hepatitis B, meningitis, mumps, pertussis, poliomyelitis, tetanus, tuberculosis, and yellow fever. Additionally, government awareness programs also play a crucial role in inducing the consumption of vaccines. Government initiatives to eradicate polio, measles, and rubella, have increased in emerging markets such as India, Africa, and other countries. For instance, the Indian government has run a vaccination campaign to eradicate polio, and the government provides free vaccination for children less than five years of age throughout the country.
Furthermore, the exposure of large populations to environmental pollution high density of population in emerging markets is likely to escalate the spread of infectious diseases over the forecast period. In this light, the demand for many vaccines increases, boosting the sale of vaccine vials. Thus, the rising prevalence of infectious diseases coupled with growing awareness about immunization is projected to drive growth in this market over the forecast period. Its impact is projected to remain high over the forecast period.
Due to the growing shortage of vaccine vials, several organizations and vaccine manufacturers have entered into partnership deals. Recently, Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) announced a partnership with Stevanato Group worth 19.7 million euros, or USD 22.2 million, for 100 million glass vials containing about two billion vaccine doses. Similarly, Pfizer signed a long-term agreement with Corning Inc. to procure vials for storing drugs. The drug maker announced that the glass vials will be used for some of its existing sterile injectable medicines but are also being assessed for storing a range of new products. These growing partnerships will increase the manufacturers' funding to equip specialized machinery and maximize capacity, thus, propelling the growth of the market.
Vaccine vials are manufactured from borosilicate glass, which is chemically stable and can withstand prolonged refrigeration and the knocks of transportation. They are not made from cheap soda-lime glass, as they leach out chemicals that can contaminate a vaccine. In addition, borosilicate glass has added boron oxide and other compounds that help stabilize the glass. Furthermore, it makes up only 10% of the world's glass production as this type of glass requires a particular kind of angular sand found in riverbeds and beaches, which is in high demand across the globe for several products. This is a critical challenge for the growth of the vaccine vials market.
While borosilicate glass has long been the packaging material of choice for vaccines, plastic is making inroads in specific applications such as emergency medicine due to glass fragility issues. In other sectors, the material is gaining momentum as a viable alternative to glass vials for various reasons. However, an immediate comparison between the price for a vial made from plastic and a similar vial made from glass will show that the purchase price for a glass vial is lower than for a plastic vial. Yet, plastic vials are the most economical solution considering the total costs from purchase to the filled product.
Furthermore, the breakage resistance of plastic and inertness can give them an advantage in the market. SiO2 Materials Science is turning to plastic medical vials lined with a glass-like coating. The company applies a nanoscale layer of organosilica to the inside of the plastic shells, creating a chemically inert interior using a process called plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. This coating provides the protective properties of glass but does not have any of the typical glass problems. This fusion of the two materials is a safer, more durable hybrid, mechanically strong, and shatterproof. Thus, the advancement in technology will bring more significant growth opportunities for the growth of the market.
The global vaccine vials market is segmented by type and material.
Based on type, the global market is segmented into single-dose and multi-dose.
The multi-dose segment is the highest contributor to the market and is projected to grow at a CAGR of 15.62% over the forecast period. A multi-dose vial is packaged with more than one dose of medication. The CDC recommends that multi-dose vials be dedicated to just one patient whenever possible. However, it still acknowledges the possibility that a vial would need to be used on many patients, which is crucial when the business experiences drug shortages. Multi-dose vials for the vaccine have some benefits, such as multiple doses can be administered from a single vial, cost-effectiveness as required less storage, etc. As per WHO guidelines, opened vials can be used in subsequent immunization sessions, in different sites, for up to 28 days. This provides the advantage of using multi-dose vaccine vials in National immunization programs. Considering the future need for mass vaccination, the multi-dose vaccine vials segment is estimated to register significant growth in the market.
Single-dose vaccine formats show some benefits over multi-dose vials. A single patient will utilize a single-dose or single-use vial for a single case, injection, or procedure when it is meant for parenteral delivery, such as an infusion or injection. One of the significant advantages of single-dose vials is that each vaccine dose remains sealed and protected until it is ready for administration, providing additional safety to patients by decreasing the chances of contamination and waste. Considering the current COVID-19 pandemic, demand for single-dose vaccine vials is expected to rise at a healthy rate in upcoming years.
Based on material, the global market is segmented into glass and polymer.
The glass segment owns the highest market share and is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 15.77% during the forecast period. Glass vials are the preferred packaging material for vaccines, as the interaction of the drug with glass is comparatively significantly less. Regulatory bodies for packaging and storage of vaccines for a longer duration authorize glass vials. Different types of glass vials are used for vaccines. 2 ml Type1 tubular glass vials and 3 ml molded vials are most preferred for vaccines currently. However, the demand for molded glass Type 1 vial is also increasing, especially for multi-dose vaccines. 10 ml, 20 ml, 30 ml, and 50 ml molded glass vials can be used for multi-dose vaccinations as an immediate solution in case of a shortage of vials. Admitting that the demand for vials is likely to go up significantly in billions after the commercialization of the COVID-19 vaccine, many glass vials manufacturers have tripled their manufacturing capacity.
The polymer segment is growing at a healthy rate over the forecast period. Considering the global demand for vaccine vials, there are chances of a shortage of glass vials, polymer-based vials, on the other hand, provide a better alternative to overcome such problems in the future. The packaging of vaccines is appropriate for polymer-based vials due to their exceptionally low leachability and extractability, low reactivity surface, non-polar nature, and widespread global regulatory compliance. This material provides high purity, and its inert nature prevents its reactions with drugs. Furthermore, this bottle offers additional benefits like being portable, lightweight, crack resistant, and not breaking easily, decreasing the chances of contamination.
Based on region, the global vaccine vials market is bifurcated into North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and RoW.
North America is the most substantial shareholder in the global vaccine vials market and is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 15.53% during the forecast period. Due to an increase in patients and rising healthcare costs for both public and private healthcare actors in North America, the market for vaccine vials is expanding rapidly. The growing number of compounding laboratories and research institutes in the United States is boosting the demand for these vaccine vials. Furthermore, the increasing number of collaborations to achieve innovative packaging technology boosts the market. The growing incidence of infectious and non-infectious diseases and the rising number of clinical studies translate into greater demand for these vials. In addition, the government is backing the promotion of pharmaceutical, medical, and biotechnological research, which is projected to work in favor of the market. The presence of several significant market players in the North American region that hold a considerable share of the market favors the growth of the vaccine vials market.
Europe is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 15.09% over the forecast period. The European region is one of the most prominent regions for the pharmaceutical industry due to its sizeable pharmaceutical manufacturing base and the ability to introduce technological advancements to pharmaceutical packaging. Furthermore, vendors in the market are trying to help as much as possible during the coronavirus outbreak. Vendors are supplying their products, from glass tubing for diagnostic test kits to vials for clinical drug trials for vaccines to providing glass packaging to help fill the gap for the projected drug shortages. This, in turn, boosts the vaccine vials market. The rising incidence of fatal diseases is the primary factor escalating market growth. Furthermore, demand for effective medical procedures and massive concerns over patients' health and safety are the major factors, among others, driving the development of the vaccine vials market. In addition, Germany held the largest share among the European countries and is expected to remain dominant over the forecast period. The presence of several prominent market players in the Europe region holds a massive share of the market and favors the growth of the vaccine vials market.
The Asia-Pacific vaccine vials market is expected to grow the fastest. The rapidly growing pharmaceutical industry across the region and the high demand for vaccine vials are arising majorly from densely populated countries. Owing to these factors, this market will have a tremendous opportunity. Moreover, the growing complexity of drugs and the increasing diseases, such as diabetes, are anticipated to drive the growth of vials, primarily driven by increased consumption from emerging markets, such as China and India. India is one of the top producers and exporters of pharmaceutical goods worldwide. As stated by the IBEF, the packaging industry in the country constitutes about 4% of the worldwide packaging industry. In addition, the government is witnessing the growing purchasing power of India's middle-class population in healthcare services, predominantly medicines. Likewise, numerous factors, such as innovations, augmented R&D spending, the increasing trend of contract packaging, and the development in the generics market, are anticipated to drive the demand for vaccine vials in the country, which drive the regional market growth.
The RoW comprises the Middle East and Africa and Latin America region. In the Latin America region, Brazil appeared as the prominent market for vaccine vials in Latin America. The government initiatives for creating awareness regarding proper healthcare facilities are also bolstering the demand for vaccine vials in the Latin America region. Rapidly aging Latin American countries will go through remarkable growth for the vaccine vials market in the near future. In contrast, due to the expanding healthcare infrastructure, the Middle East and African markets for Egyptian vaccine vials are anticipated to expand steadily during the forecasted period. Rising incidences of Cardiothoracic, Gastrointestinal, Orthopedic, and other diseases requiring proper management in a medical facility across the Gulf Cooperation Council countries drive the growth of the vaccine vials market in the Middle East and Africa.
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